English Grammar Modals Notes and Questions

Modal
The following are the modal verbs in English grammar:

(i) Shall(ii) Will(iii) Should(iv) Would
(v) Can(vi) Could(vii) May(viii) Might
(ix) Used to(x) Ought to(xi) Need to(xii) Dare

Use of ‘shall’ / ‘will’

Generally shall is used with “I and we” and will is used with the rest. In another words we can say that shall is used with first person and will is used with second and third person.

Example
• We shall take this initiative.
• They will prosecute him in the court of law.

♦ But
If a sentence refers to
(i) Promise
(ii) Willingness
(iii) Certainty
(iv) Determination and
(v) Threat in that case “shall” is used in the place of “will” and “will is used in the place of “shall”.

Example
• I will go to Mumbai tomorrow anyhow. (Certainty)
• You shall not move out of this house without my permission. (Threat)
• I shall achieve my goal. (Determination)

Use of ‘Should’

(i) Should is used for active suggestion
You should work sincerely
I don’t think you should smoke so much.

(ii) Should is used for opinion
What should I wear?
John should initiate this through proper channel.

(iii) Should is used for duty or obligation
You should reach on time.
Smith should have been more careful.

(iv) Should is used for probability or expectation
They should have reached Mumbai.
Steve should have submitted the report.

Use of ‘Would’

(i) Would is used for past
For Example: He would go for a walk when he was young.

(ii) Would is used for polite request
For Example: Would you like to take a cup of coffee or tea?

(iii) In indirect sentence ‘would’ is used in place of will
Direct: He said, “He will come”.
Indirect: He said that he would come.

(iv) Would is used to express opinion or hope
For Example: I would like to inform you about it.

(V) Would is used for wish
For Example: I wish I would be a successful man.

Use of Can

(i) Can is used to show power
The government can allow him to go abroad.

(ii) Can is used to show ability
I can tame the wild animal.

(iii) Can is used to show possibility.
He can come any moment.

(iv) Can is used to take/ give permission
Can I sit here? You can go now.

(V) Can is used for polite request
Can you do me a favour? Can I talk to Steve?

(VI) Can is used to show nature
He can speak lies.

Use of ‘Could’

Could is the past form of can.
(i) Could is used to show possibility in past
I could win the race last year
He could be there.
While climbing up the hill we could hardly talk to each other.

(ii) Could is used to show ability in past
She could speak English when she was young.
He could speak three languages when he was young.

(iii) Could is used for polite request
Could you tell me the way to the nearest post office?
Could you help me, please?
Could you lend me some money?

Use of ‘May’

(i) May is used for formal permission
May I come in sir?
May I borrow your pen?

(ii) May is used to show possibility
It may rain today.
Death may come any time.

Use of ‘Might’

(i) Might is used for weak possibility
He might come any time.

(ii) Might is used for past possibility
She might have attended the meeting.

Use of ‘Must’

(i) Must is used for necessity and obligation.
I must attend the class.

(ii) Must is used for compulsion
You must obey the rules of your country.

(iii) Must is used for emphatic advice
You must not miss the class.
Use of ‘Need To’

(i) Need to is used to show requirement
You need to work hard.

Use of Use To

(i) Used to is used to show past habit
I used to go to school when I was young.
We used to go out for dinner when we were in Delhi.

Use of ‘Ought To’

(i) Ought to is used for social binding and moral respect
You ought to follow the norms of society. You ought to respect your elders.

Use of Dare

(i) Dare is used to show courage
How did you dare to answer back him?

Fill in the blanks with suitable modals.

Question. You______obey your parents.

Answer;

should

Question. We______win this match easily.

Answer;

can

Question. I______play cricket with my friends when I was young.

Answer;

used to

Question. You______have won the prize.

Answer;

could

Fill in the blanks with suitable modals

Question. If we had scored well then we______have won the match.
(A) Should
(B) Can
(C) Would
(D) Will
(E) None of these

Answer;

C

Explanation: If we had scored well then we would have won the match.

Question. ______ I ask you a question?
(A) Should
(B) May
(C) Could
(D) Must
(E) None of these

Answer;

B

Explanation: May I ask you a question?

Question. Karina’s engagement ring is enormous! It ______have cost a fortune.
(A) May
(B) Might
(C) Can
(D) Must
(E) None of these

Answer;

D

Question. I was reading the book last night before 1 went to bed. 1 never took it out of this room. It______ be lying around here somewhere.
(A) Should
(B) Might
(C) Ought to
(D) Must
(E) None of these

Answer:

D

Question. You______ take your umbrella along with you today.
(A) Should
(B) Might
(C) Must
(D) Could
(E) None of these

Answer:

A

Question. The board of directors______ be responsible for payment to stockholders.
(A) Need
(B) Shall
(C) Will
(D) All of these
(E) None of these

Answer:

B

Question. If you think that was amazing, you______have seen it last night.
(A) Should
(B) Would
(C) Could
(D) Must
(E) None of these

Answer:

A

Question. Death______come anytime.
(A) Can
(B) May
(C) Could
(D) Should
(E) None of these

Answer:

B

Question. I talk to my friends in the library waiting room?
(A) May
(B) Would
(C) Can
(D) Could
(E) None of these

Answer:

C

Question. If he studied harder, he pass this course.
(A) Shall
(B) Could
(C) Should
(D) Would
(E) None of these

Answer:

B

Question. If I had invited him then he have come.
(A)Will
(B) Would
(C) Should
(D) Shall
(E) None of these

Answer:

B

Question. Work hard lest you fail.
(A) Will
(B) Would
(C) Should
(D) Shall
(E) None of these

Answer:

C

1Karina’s engagement ring is enormous! It must have cost a fortun

2I was reading the book last night before I went to b I never took it out of this room. It must be lying around here somewhere.

3You should take your umbrella along with you today.

4The boards of directors shall be responsible for payment to stockhold

5If you think that was amazing, you should have seen it last nigh

6Death may come anytim

7Can I talk to my friends in the library waiting room.

8If he studied harder, he could pass this cou

9If l had invited him then he would have com

10Work hard lest you should fai