Unseen Passage for Class 12

Unseen passage for class 12 is the most important part to score higher marks in your exam. Unseen Passage for Class 12 carries 20 marks in your English exam. Obviously, you need to make yourself an expert in the unseen passage for class 12 to score higher marks in your exam.

Students who are planning to score higher marks in class 12 should practice the unseen passage for class 12 before attending the CBSE board exam. Unseen Passage for Class 12 carries 20 marks in your English exam.

It is compulsory to solve the unseen passage for class 12 because you need to score higher marks in your exam.

To improve your skills, we have provided you with the unseen passage for class 12 with answers. We have 15 unseen passages for class 12 given below.

While Solving the passage, you will see some unseen passage for class 12 with MCQs also present in them. It is provided to make yourself an expert by solving them and score good marks in your exam. You can also practice unseen passage for class 12 in Hindi.

Remember don’t start with writing the answer when you did not see unseen passage for class 12.

Guidelines to attempts the unseen passage for class 12

1-First of all, read the passage quickly and answer the question at the end of the passages.

2-Underline the word which you find related to given question.

3-There is also another method you can start first by solving questions without reading the passage which does not give you any clue especially in English unseen passage for class 12. It just becomes easier to underline those word which you have seen in the question.

4-While writing the answer, be sure, do not try to give a general answer, sometimes students write the general description just to obtain 2 or 3 marks so avoid it.

5-Write your answer short and use simple sentences unless required to do.

6-Do not stick to one question because you are wasting your time and don’t use unmeaningful words when meaningful give you good marks.

7-Try to use your own word as much as you can. It means you must summarise and explain in detail and don’t try to take whole sentences from the passage.

8-While writing the answer to a factual question( i.e, the question that involves words like what, when, how, and why,)do not write the information which is not given in that passage so, while answering this question you may start your answer with ‘This is because of a similar phrase.

9-While writing the vocabulary question,decide the grammatical form of the word. Your answer should have a similar grammatical form. 

Unseen passage for class 12 with answers

1 Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

1. Two weeks ago, I travelled across northeast Karnataka and spent time in the districts of Gulbarga, Bijapur and Yadgir, including many villages and small towns. Almost all my time was spent in government schools, with children, teachers and other functionaries of the system. I also spent some time with people from a few village communities.

2. This large area of Karnataka is very disadvantaged. A week spent in such a region can be very disturbing because it reveals the reality of inequality and injustice that millions of our fellow citizens face. But despite glaringly visible problems and challenges, the week was also deeply energizing and filled me with hope because of the spirit of the people I met there. My experience is best described by two examples.

3. I met a girl who was about 16. She was clear that she wanted to join the police service. She opened up about her life. She spoke of an incident when a man harassed her, and how she confronted him directly and stopped him in his tracks. Her boldness and courage would do anyone proud. She comes from an area riven by deep seated gender disparity and discrimination. Her family is deeply disadvantaged and it is obvious that all odds are heavily loaded against her.

4. However, she is what she is, an individual with courage, conviction and aspirations. She is admirable. A local group of people and an NGO, which mobilize the community to help young girls, have supported her. And she is one among the hundreds who have benefited. The young people I met and the NGO that works with them are a remarkable example of resilience and of battling for justice.

5. I also met, across all villages and small towns, hundreds of teachers from government schools who are deeply committed and motivated. They spend their own money and come on their own time, often on a public holiday or weekend, to learn something new, so that they can become better teachers.

6. I can tell you that even in a successful IT company there will be very few takers if you ask people to come on a Sunday, at their own cost, to learn and become better software engineers. But these teachers do this. They recognize from within themselves that as educators, they have a deep responsibility. That, in many ways, the future of our children is in their hands.

7. This positive experience with government schoolteachers is not limited to Karnataka but true across the country. Our experience has been that 10-20 per cent teachers everywhere are highly motivated. They lead positive change.

8. It’s true that 10-20 per cent are quite disengaged. However even more importantly, the middle 60 per cent work positively if the right atmosphere and support structure is provided. Also, if young people who are just getting into the profession have the right environment, then they can develop as genuinely committed educators.

9. To me, all this is a reason for great hope. It certainly is positive reason for hope that in the frontline of our public education, in the government school system, there are a significant number of people working for genuine improvement. And this includes not just teachers but also officials at various levels of the system.

10. Our schools and colleges need to improve on very many counts. We are aware of these challenges. I believe our efforts to improve the system will receive a big fillip if we harness and channelise abundant positive energy that I alluded to. We can’t always keep blaming and castigating people in our public systems because that is no way for any positive change to happen.

11. We have to provide support and create the environment for such change to happen, for people to feel empowered and take initiative. And at the same time, we must strongly reaffirm our commitment to the public education system; this is very fundamental issue.

12. Let me end by saying that all my life, I have learnt that ordinary people are capable of doing extraordinary things. For this they need to be trusted, encouraged and empowered. This is not the only thing that needs to be done, but nothing else will work unless we do this.

(I) On the basis of your understanding of the passage answer the following questions with the help of the given options:

(a) While travelling across Northeast Karnataka, the author ……………….
(i) Spent time in the districts of Gulbarga, Bijapur etc.
(ii) Also met government school teachers and students etc.
(iii) Spent time with people from a few village communities.
(iv) All of the above.

(b) NGO stands for ………………………
(i) Non-government organization
(ii) Neo-government organization
(iii) Non-governmental organization
(iv) No-government organization

(c) The author met a girl who ………………………
(i) Was from an advantaged background
(ii) Had no ambition in life
(iii) Was bold and courageous
(iv) Was not supported by the NGO

(d) To progress, any good society needs …………………………..
(i) Clean and hygienic environment
(ii) A committed public education system
(iii) Technology
(iv) Both (i) and (ii)

(II) Answer the following questions briefly.
(e) Why did the author find a week spent in Karnataka disturbing?
(f) How did the girl deal with the man who harassed her?
(g) The village teachers were committed. How can we say that?
(h) What percentage does the author say is highly motivated and what is quite disengaged?
(i) What can be done to make people feel empowered and take initiative?
(j) How can the ordinary people do extraordinary things.

(III) Find words fromm the passage which mean the same as:
(k) Deprived (para 2)
(l) Rebuke severely (para 10)

Suggested answer for above questions:


(I) (a) (iv) All of the above.
(b) (i) Non-Governmental Organization
(c) (iii) was bold and courageous
(d) (iv) Both (i) and (ii)

(II)
(e) The author found the week spent in Karnataka disturbing because it revealed the realities off inequality and injustice that millions of fellow citizens face.
(f) The girl confronted him and stopped him in his tracks.
(g) We can say that as those hundreds of teachers would spend their own money and time, often on a public holiday or weekend, to learn something new to become better teachers.
(h) 10-20% teachers everywhere are highly motivated and an equal number is quite disengaged.
(i) A strong support system, an environment for change to happen and commitment of the public education system are needed to make people feel empowered and motivated.
(j) The ordinary people need to be trusted, encouraged and empowered, only then they can do extraordinary things

(III) (k) disadvantaged
(l) castigating

2 Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

1. Bhagwati Kumari, 23, was at the threshold of a promising run in athletics when she got the chance to meet ace sprinter PT Usha at a national sporting event in 2007.

2. The three-time state level athletics champion, who represented Rajasthan in various under-19 national championships and acquired the nickname ‘Bhago’ because of her passion for running, is living in utter penury these days, eking out a living as a National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme worker.

3. Practicing at a sporting arena is a thing of the past for Bhago, who works along her sister-in law  near Nagini village in Sirohi district. The athlete can barely afford two square meals a day now. Traditional clothes and a pair of slippers have replaced the track suits and running shoes.

4. This is sharp contrast to her feat in 2006, when she came to Jaipur to take part in the state level athletics championship and gave her career best performance. “I became champion in 800 metres, completing the race in 2 minutes and 32 seconds,” Bhago recalls proudly.

5.Bhago’s passion for becoming a national champion in the open category was overtaken by a sequence of events starting with the death of her brother six years ago and that of her father two years later. Her husband divorced her too two years ago. She now lives with her mother, brother and sister-in-law helping them make ends meet.

6. Born in 1992, Bhago made her village proud when she participated in a district level athletics championship in 2002. “I was the sarpanch of Nagani village at that time,” recalls Narayan Singh. “She won gold medals in different championships held in the state. Today I feel bad when I see her working as a labourer” he adds.

7. After winning the 400m race in her school in an under-14 district tournament in 2002, Bhago represented Sirohi and won gold in the 200m race in 2003 in Didwana, Nagaur. However, the defining moment of her career came when she was picked up to represent the state for the national games held in Pune in 2005-06 in under-14 category.

8. She was subsequently selected for All India Rural Sports Championships held in Assam in January 2007 and in Tamil Nadu in November 2007. “I met PT Usha in Tamil Nadu. That was the moment of my life. I wanted to become like her;” Bhago said.

9. An NGO, Society for All Round Development, has taken up Bhago’s case. “We are trying to help her. She is the icon of her village. The villagers honour her during Republic Day and Independence Day celebrations, but her financial conditions is really bad,” says Sunita Sharma, secretary of SARD.

(I) On the basis of your understanding of the passage answer the following questions with the help of the given options:

(a) Bhagwati Kumari, three-time state level athletic champion is presently working as a ……………………….
(i) maid
(ii) labourer
(iii) sports teacher
( iv) sweeper

(b) Bhago’s dream of becoming a national champion came to an end because of ………………………..
(i) death of her brother followed by her father’s later
(ii) divorce from her husband
(iii) total apathy shown by the government
(iv ) All of the above

(II) Answer the following questions briefly.
( c) How did Bhagwat Kumari get the nickname “Bhago”?
(d) Where is Bhagwati working presently?
(e) What does she recall proudly?
(f) When did the defining moment of her career come?
(g) Who is Bhagwati’s role model and where did she meet her?
(h) Who has taken up Bhago’s case now?

( III) Find words from the passage which mean the same as:
(i) Extreme poverty (para 2)
(ii) Symbol/ representative (para 9

Suggested answer for above questions:

(I)
a) (ii) labourer
b) (iv) All of the above

(II)
c) Bhagwati got the nickname ‘Bhago’ because of her passion for running.
d )Bhagwati is presently working as a labourer with her sister-in-law near Nagane villages in Sirohi district.
e) Bhagwati recalls her feat in 2006 at Jaipur when she became champion in 800 metres, completing the race in 2 minutes and 32 seconds.
f) Bhagwati’s defining moment came when she was picked up to represent her state for the national
games held in Pune in 2005-2006 in the under-14 category.
g) Bhagwati’s role model is PT Usha. She met her in Tamil Nadu.
h) An NGO-SARD (Society for All Round Development) has taken up Bhago’s case now.

(III) (i) penury
(j) icon

3. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

Ask anyone who has organized traditional Indian wedding what the most painstaking task of all is, and the chances are the answer would be the entire process of sending out invitations. First one has to make a thousand calls to collect the addresses, write each of them on the card and then courier or post them. In addition to this, there is that special lot that needs to be delivered personally no matter how much time is wasted braving long hours in traffic jam.

It is a little wonder that e-invites or e-vites as they are popularly called, are catching on with the young and techie these days. They save paper, time and money and can be personalized to suit the couple. It is also environment friendly. The people can also be non-traditional in the sense that they can send light, amusing messages in the e-vites retaining the main purpose but this liberty can be taken with just a handful of people who would understand.

Paper invites, especially the designer ones, are expensive and can cost even Rs. 10,000 per card. For a Delhi’s industrialist’s wedding in Dubai, iPad Air Tabs were sent out as special invites and each reportedly cost Rs. 30,000. Excess, however doesn’t always impress, no matter, how expensive or exotic the invitation. It eventually lands up in trash!

E-invites have their pros. They are not easy only to create and cheap to make but also make the process of inviting guests faster. There are no reports of cards getting lost on the way. However a few cons cannot be overlooked. They make a wedding feel less formal, can land up in scam and guests may still keep waiting for a physical invite and not send only RSVPs. Some couples choose a middle path- send a save-the-date via e-mail followed by a physical invite.

There are many websites and apps that allow people to create their e-vites. Paperless post, offers around 390 free designs. It also lets you use the same design for digital as well as physical invites. Users can play around with fonts and colours of the text as well as the texture and shade of the envelope. And of course, the content is personalized. On Desievite.com, one can make e-invites in ten Indian languages apart from English. This site which is located in the US, has e-invites for a number of Indian festivals and religious events like Satyanarayan puja and Kali puja.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it, using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations and a format you consider suitable. Also give an appropriate title to it.

(b) Write a summary in about 80 words.

4  Read the passage given below and then answer the questions which follow:-

1. India is so lively and refreshing. From here, the West looks somewhat old, gray and struggling. Indeed, India looks all set to regain the centrestage it occupied a few centuries ago. But while it is developing very fast and its elite is striving to match up with the West, is it not, at the same time, putting at stake much of its precious environment, culture, traditions and values? Of course, the great country has abscribed influences of many previous invaders and colonizers without losing its identity. But presently, its “westernization” seems to be taking place at a frightening speed.

2. Foreign trade delegations are rushing into the country even during the hottest months of the year. Starry-eyed businessmen, dressed in crisp black suits are hopping from one fivestar hotel to another, cracking mega deals. Market scales and huge figures make them drool. They all want their chunk of the great Indian curry. However, the West is not always exporting its very best to India. Because it’s not just higher standards of safety or environmental friendliness, or valuable technologies and knowhow that are flowing from the western world.

3. Fast food, tobacco, alcohol and toxic skin-whitening creams are pouring into India. This wave is promoting a western lifestyle based on consumerism, individualism and meaninglessness. And the pace of consumption is indeed picking up in India. Manufacturers of goods as different as cars, clothes or cellphones have noticed that in recent years the life cycle of products has shortened.

4. While the older generation of Indians would buy a new product only when the previous one’s useful life had ended, the young generation tends to fall for novelty. People want the latest generation of gadgets because they have more money and more access to such goods. But mostly, they are made to believe, by ever increasing and omnipresent publicity, that they will feel happier with the new product. To encourage this shopping frenzy, a quiet revolution is taking place in the form of rapidly increasing credit penetration.

5. For historical and cultural reasons, well-to-do Indians traditionally avoided indenting themselves. This may be one less talked about reasons why the country’s economy avoided major trouble during the recent crisis. Only 20 million Indians possess a credit card and personal loans represent about 10% of GDP. Whilst in most western economies, the latter account for approximately 100% of it. But all this is about to change with a booming credit industry.

6. These trends may be healthy ingredients for thriving capitalism. But they may not prove soothing for the soul. Even if they all possess their own television, car, washing machine and fridge, Westerners are not necessarily a happier lot. Surveys show that their happiness has declined in correlation with the development of consumerism since World War II. Moreover, most people in the so-called developed nations suffer from obesity, loneliness depression and addiction to prescribed drugs. May be once upon a time they danced, sang songs and told stories, but now, free time often means watching TV or shopping.

7. To meet the growing demand, natural resources are now being exploited in India, displacing millions of tribal people towards urban slums fuelling growing pockets of civil war-like conflicts across the country. Efforts may be made to fight the old caste system, but a social stratification based on consumption power is emerging. Along with this, India’s comparatively good criminality track record is bound to go on the rise in the coming years.

8. From environmental perspective, the current scenario is down-right terrifying. Mountains are being blown up, forest are being shaved, soil and sacred rivers are being polluted to cater to the endless production of goods that are meant to be replaced as fast as possible.And whilst the West exports its toxic junk to places like India, where it is “recycled” in dangerous conditions by the informal sector, for peanuts, where will the Indians’ rapidly growing waste be dumped?

9. Maybe 50 years ago, the effects of massive consumption were largely ignored. But today, most people acknowledge many planets would be required if everyone picked up American consumer habits.

10. Even the western toilets have become a status symbol in Indian middleclass homes. Millions of fancy flush toilets are added every year to new trendy restaurants, malls, condominiums and five-star hotels in Indian cities. Instead of adopting unsustainable imports from the West, there are areas wherein India should inspire the latter. With its traditional squatting toilet for instance. Not just because it is cheaper, more hygienic and better adapted to the human anatomy, but mostly, in a context where clean water is increasingly rare and pricy, because it requires much less of it. Countless other sustainable concepts, values and products from India could benefit Westerners. Strong extended family ties, respect for elders, kriya yoga and tongue-scrapers are just a few of them.

11. India needs to avoid repeating the West’s mistakes. Only enlightened citizens can show the way towards a more viable economy but putting pressure on government, stressing India’s success should not be measured by GDP growth rates and spending habits alone. Nor should it aspire to become like the US or China.

12. Concerned and responsible Indian citizens can encourage sensible consumption behaviour – by shopping less and wasting even lesser. By buying local products to keep the cottage industries, bazaar culture, traditional crafts and wisdom alive. In essence, by valuing their rich heritage and living simple and meaningful lives, Indians can set an example, and show the West that Mother India is much more than a well of business opportunities. It’s not just a matter of common sense; it’s about our survival.

A On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer the following questions by choosing the best of the given choices:

  1. The reason for India being centre stage is
    a. Foreign investers interest
    b. escalation in Indian economy
    c. India being an excellent trader
  2. Growing demand in India has led to
    a. displacing tribals to urban
    b. growth in criminal records
    c. both a & b.
  3. Citizens can show sensible behaviour by
    a. shopping less
    b. settling abroad
    c. buying foreign goods

B Based on your reading of the passage, answer the following questions.
(a) What cost have we to pay for westernization?
(b) How do the salesmen try to tempt buyers for buying cell phones?
(c) How do the old and young consumers differ in buying goods?
(d) What are the threats faced by the developed countries due to consumerism?
(e) How can Indians inspire western countries through their traditions and life styles?

B. Find out the words from the passage which mean the same as follows:
(a) attackers (para – 1)
(b) one who is present everywhere (para – 4)
(c) provides (para – 8)

Suggested answer for above questions:

1 1a,
2 c,
3 a,

(a) western style based on consumerism, individualism and meaninglessness.
(b) foe novelty, they will feel happier with the new product.
(c) old only after the old is worn out , nwe for novelty and money power.
(d) decline in happiness, suffer from obesity, loneliness,depression and addiction to prescribed drugs.
(e) sensible shopping behaviour, strong extended family ties, respect for elders, kriya yoga and
tongue- scrapers

B. (a) Invader,
(b) omnipresent ,
(c) cater

5. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

(1) Suspense was over when my high school results finally came out. But I was upset. I hadn’t done as well as I had expected. My father tried to console me. “Why are you worried ? You have done very well my dear.” “No, I haven’t, Baba,” I protested, controlling my tears, and wondering if I had disappointed him. “It doesn’t really matter,” he assured me. “Do you know what I got when I finished high school ?” I looked into Baba’s face and waited for the answer to his own question. “You know,” he told me. “I’ve never told you this. I got just a third division. But, look at me, I’ve done quite well.” Baba got a third division ! I was almost in shock, but the thought of my having done a lot better than that made me realize that I had no reason to complain. I certainly felt better ! “Everything is under control !” said Baba, smiling. That was his favourite phrase. Posted in Kolkata, my father was then a senior official in the Indian Railway Service, and an expert in goods traffic operations. He was soon to become a director with the Railway Board. By the time he retired in 1981, he was general manager of the Central Railways. By the time Baba passed away in November 2000, his name had found place in several hearts as well. He was open, easy to know, and full of life. We were extremely close, but I had so much more to learn about him from many things I came to know after his death.

(2) In September 2000, he was in hospital for treatment of cancer and given just two months to live. When he found out, his reaction was an extremely rational one. He asked me to fetch files from his cupboard, so that he could explain the details of my mother’s pension. He also dictated his will from his hospital bed. “Everything is under control !” After Baba’s death, Satish, our old family retainer, was inconsolable. We tried to cheer him up. “Your Baba had scolded me only once in all these years !” he cried. Satish pointed to the watch on his left hand. “I had been coming late for work and everyone in the family was complaining about it,” said Satish. “Then, one day, your Baba gave me this watch and told me, ‘now that you have a watch, you can’t be late’.” That was the scolding Satish received. On the fourth day after Baba’s death, my sister and I had to perform a ceremony. Since several relatives were expected, we decided to order lunch from a caterer in our locality, reputed for his home cooked food. But, when we went to pay the owner, we got a surprise. He refused to accept any money ! “When I wanted to start my catering business, it was your father who lent me money,” he told us. It seems Baba never asked for it back. Now, after four or five years, the caterer wanted to repay that debt. Of course, we made him accept the full payment for the fine food and service. ‘It was Baba’s gift and it ought to remain so,” I told him.

(3) Some days later, there was yet another piece of information as we were preparing for the main ceremony. Vikram, my brother drove me to the local market. On recognizing our car, the parking assistant, in his twenties, came running towards us and asked why he had not seen its owner for long. We had to break the news to him and to our utter surprise, he started crying. We were really surprised by this reaction from a stranger – until the man told us that Baba used to pay his daughter’s school fees and buy her books. It seems, it was on my father’s advice that he’d even started sending the child to school. More than three years after Baba’s death, as we were looking into Baba’s personal things, we came across an old file with Baba’s certificates and I found among them, his high school diploma from 1937, the one he’d told me about 30 yearsearlier, about the third division that had made no difference in his life or career.

It had made me see beyond mere marks and first classes as the main road to success. But there was one more fact. Baba had actually got a first division, a rare achievement in his day. Today, years after his passing, when I think of Baba, I see a man who was able to sympathise with others so easily and touch their lives in such a special way.

1.1 On the basis of your understanding of the passage answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate options.

(a) Why was the narrator in tears when her school results came out ?
(i) She did better than she expected.
(ii) She did not do as expected.
(iii) Her Baba had not done well.
(iv) Her Baba had done better than her.

(b) On knowing the result, how did the narrator’s father react ?
(i) He scolded her.
(ii) He beat her.
(iii) He consoled her.
(iv) He made fun of her.

(c) Why did the narrator say that she had nothing to complain ?
(i) She had done better than her father.
(ii) She had done as well as her father.
(iii) She had topped in her school.
(iv) She had not worked hard at all.

(d) Choose the option that is not correct.
(i) Baba was a senior official in the Indian Railway Service.
(ii) Baba was to become a director with the Railway Board.
(iii) Baba was the general manager of the Central Railways.
(iv) Baba had got a third division in high school

1.2 Answer the following
(a) Why did the narrator’s sick father want her to fetch files from his cupboard ?
(b) Why did Baba buy Satish a watch ?
(c) Why did the caterer not want to take money from the narrator ?
(d) Why were the narrator and her brother surprised on meeting the parking assistant ?
(e) Today years after his passing away what has the narrator realized about her Baba ?
(f) What was the story that Baba had invented on the day the narrator’s results were published ?

1.3 Find words from the passage that mean the same as the following :
(i) tension/anxiety (para 1)
(ii) servant (para 2)

Suggested answer for above questions:

1.1 (a) (ii) She did not do as expected.
(b) (iii) He consoled her.
(c) (i) She had done better than her father.
(d) (iv) Baba had got a third division in high school.
1.2
(a) – so that he could explain details of mother‟s pension / he had cancer with 2 months to live
(b) – so that he was not late for work
(c) – father had lent him money to start his catering business / felt grateful to the narrator for what Baba had done for him
(d) – he started crying on learning of the father‟s death / came to know that father had been helping his daughter by paying for her school fee and books
(e) – he had been a sympathetic man / had been able to touch people‟s lives in a special way
(f) – that he had got a third division in high school

1.3 (i) suspense / upset
(ii) retainer

6. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

(1) As dusk falls the neon lights of the jewellery shops in Bowbazaar come alive but the lights have no effect on the face of Mahadeo Yadav who is seated on the footrest of his rickshaw that is parked by the road, feeling very sad. He is sitting on his feet, hugging his knees to keep himself warm in the biting cold, so weakened and lifeless as if he had been dead for days without anyone noticing.

(2) Who would after all notice a rickshaw puller, to check whether he is breathing or not ? Yet when the same rickshaw puller goes about his work pulling his rickshaw like a horse, he becomes the most noticed man in Calcutta. He makes a great subject for photographers, writers and film-makers. He is the symbol of poor Calcutta. Many a famous actor has pulled the rickshaw in films set in the city. (3) Calcutta is said to have about 6000 rickshaw pullers running on its roads, running mostly in its old neighbourhoods. They have something in common apart from their poverty. All of them come from the country side. All of them wear the lungi to work, perhaps for better movement. Almost all of them are elderly; I am yet to see a young man hand pulling a rickshaw. It can be a sad sight to watch a man almost as old as your father struggling his way through the roads dressed only in a vest and a lungi and often barefoot.

(4) Mahadeo Yadav, the rickshaw puller is in his seventies and has been pulling the same rickshaw in and around Bowbazaar for fifty years. For him, fifty years, half a century is not an achievement, but merely the time that has passed ever since he came to Calcutta to earn a living.

(5) He lives all alone in Calcutta, in a room in a nearby lane, paying a monthly rent of fifty rupees. He is out with his rickshaw between three in the afternoon and ten at night, sometimes earning sixty or seventy rupees a day and sometimes nothing. Every month without fail he sends _ 300 to his wife back home, and once every year visits her. “I will pull the rickshaw as long as I can”, he says, “this is my only source of livelihood. These days I tire easily. Sometimes my feet hurt and sometimes my back. But do I have a choice ?” He answers all my questions without looking at me even once, but continued to stare ahead blankly, his arms folded around his knees. I take a good look at his rickshaw : the two – the rickshaw and the rickshaw puller – make quite a pair.

2.1 Choose the correct alternatives from the options given below :

(a) A rickshaw puller is noticed only when he
(i) acts in a film.
(ii) becomes a subject for photographers.
(iii) sits all alone.
(iv) is old and tired.

(b) Pick out the statement which is not true.
(i) Most rickshaw pullers are old.
(ii) The rickshaw pullers earn very little.
(iii) Many renowned actors are rickshaw pullers.
(iv) They are neglected by people.

2.2 Answer the following questions :
(a) Why does Yadav “stare ahead blankly” ?
(b) Why are rickshaw pullers known as the icons of poor Calcutta ?
(c) Which instance tells you that Yadav loved his family ?
(d) Where does Yadav stay ?
(e) What comparison does the writer draw between the rickshaw and its puller ?
(f) What do the rickshaw pullers have in common ?

2.3 Pick out words from the passage that mean the following :
(a) well-known (para 2)
(b) income (para 5)

Suggested answer for above questions:

2.1 (a) (ii) becomes a subject for photographers.
(b) (iii) Many renowned actors are rickshaw pullers.

2.2(a) – he is feeling sad / has no choice / is in pain / back hurts / rickshaw pulling only source of livelihood / feeling tired / future bleak / steeped in poverty
(b) – their poverty represents the poor of Calcutta / he makes a great subject for photographers, writers and film-makers
(c) – visited home once a year / sends Rs 300/- per month
(d) – in a room / in a nearby lane / Calcutta
(e) – rickshaw puller compared to horse with the rickshaw compared to a carriage/ the make quite a pair / both are old and withered
(f) – all hail from the countryside / all wear lungi / almost all are elderly/ often barefoot / poor

2.3 (a) famous / most noticed
(b) livelihood / earning

  1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

Although stupidity is commonly defined as ‘a lack of normal intelligence’, stupid behaviour is not the behaviour of a person lacking in intelligence but the behaviour of a person not using good judgement or sense. In fact, stupidity comes from the Latin word that means ‘senseless’. Therefore, stupidity can be defined as the behaviour of a person of normal intelligence who acts in a particular situation as if he or she isn’t very bright. Stupidity exists at three levels of seriousness.

First is the simple, relatively harmless level. Behaviour at this level is often amusing. It is humorous when someone places the food from a fast food restaurant on the roof of the car while unlocking the door and then drives away with the food still on the roof. We call this absent-minded. The person’s good sense or intelligence was temporarily absent. At this level, other than passing inconvenience or embarrassment, no one is injured by the stupid behaviour.

The next type-serious stupidity-is more dangerous. Practical jokes such as putting sugar in the salt shakers are at this level. The intention is humorous, but there is a chance of harm. Irresponsible advice given to others is also serious stupidity. An example is the person who plays psychiatrist on the basis of an introductory psychology course or doing a TV program on psychiatry. The intention may be to help, but if the victim really needs psychiatric help an amateur will only worsen the situation.

Even worse is the third kind of stupidity. Kind people, who would never injure another living being, stupidly throw away a box of six-week-old kittens along a country road. Lacking the heart to kill the poor things, they sentence them to almost certain death from wild animals, infections, exposure or the wheels of a passing vehicle. Yet they are able to tell themselves that they will find nice homes’ or ‘animals can get along in the wild’. Another example of this kind of stupidity is the successful local businessman who tries to have as many office affairs as he can get away with. He risks the loss of his business and his home. He fails to see that what he is doing is wrong. His is the true moral stupidity of a person not willing to think about the results of his actions or take responsibility for them. The common defence of a person guilty of stupidity is – ‘But I didn’t think….. ‘This, however, is not a proper excuse, especially when serious or harmful stupidity is involved.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary.

(b) Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title.

(a) NOTE MAKING

Title: Facts about Stupid Behaviour / Stupidity / any other relevant title
1 Definition

1.1 common def.
1.1.1 lack of normal int.
1.1.2 behaviour without good judgement / sense

1.2 author‟s def.
1.2.1 behaviour of normal int. not acting brightly
1.2.2 has 3 levels

2 Levels of Stupidity
2.1 1st level
2.1.1 simple
2.1.2 harmless
2.1.3 often amusing
2.1.4 absentmindedness
2.1.5 no one injured

2.2 2nd level
2.2.1 more dangerous
2.2.2 intention humorous but chance of harm

2.3 3rd level
2.3.1 worst
2.3.2 moral stupidity
2.3.3 unwilling to take responsibility

(b) Summary
The summary should include all the important points given in the notes.
Content
Expression

8. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

1 We sit in the last row, bumped about but free of stares. The bus rolls out of the dull crossroads of the city, and we are soon in open countryside, with fields of sunflowers as far as the eye can see, their heads all facing us. Where there is no water, the land reverts to desert. While still on level ground, we see in the distance the tall range of the Mount Bogda, abrupt like a shining prism laid horizontally on the desert surface. It is over 5,000 metres high, and the peaks are under permanent snow, in powerful contrast to the flat desert all around. Heaven Lake lies part of the way up this range, about 2,000 metres above sea-level, at the foot of one of the higher snow-peaks.

2 As the bus climbs, the sky, brilliant before, grows overcast. I have brought nothing warm to wear: it is all down at the hotel in Urumqi. Rain begins to fall. The man behind me is eating overpoweringly smelly goats‖ cheese. The bus window leaks inhospitably but reveals a beautiful view. We have passed quickly from desert through arable land to pasture, and the ground is now green with grass, the slopes dark with pine. A few cattle drink at a clear stream flowing past moss-covered stones; it is a Constable landscape. The stream changes

into a white torrent, and as we climb higher I wish more and more that I had brought with me something warmer than the pair of shorts that have served me so well in the desert. The stream (which, we are told, rises in Heaven Lake) disappears, and we continue our slow ascent. About noon, we arrive at Heaven Lake, and look for a place to stay at the foot, which is the resort area. We get a room in a small cottage, and I am happy to note that there are thick quilts on the beds.

3 Standing outside the cottage we survey our surroundings. Heaven Lake is long, sardine-shaped and fed by snowmelt from a stream at its head. The lake is an intense blue, surrounded on all sides by green mountain walls, dotted with distant sheep. At the head of the lake, beyond the delta of the inflowing stream, is a massive snow-capped peak which dominates the vista; it is part of a series of peaks that culminate, a little out of view, in Mount Bogda itself.

4 For those who live in the resort, there is a small mess-hall by the shore. We eat here sometimes, and sometimes buy food from the vendors outside, who sell kabab and naan until the last buses leave. The kababs, cooked on skewers over charcoal braziers, are particularly good; highly spiced and well-done. Horse‖s milk is available too from the local Kazakh herdsmen, but I decline this. I am so affected by the cold that Mr. Cao, the relaxed young man who runs the mess, lends me a spare pair of trousers, several sizes too large but more than comfortable. Once I am warm again, I feel a pre-dinner spurt of energy — dinner will be long in coming — and I ask him whether the lake is good for swimming in.

5 “Swimming ?” Mr. Cao says. “You are’t thinking of swimming, are you ?

6 “I thought I might,” I confess. “Wha’s the water like ? 7 He doesn’t answer me immediately, turning instead to examine some receipts with exaggerated interest. Mr. Cao, with great off-handedness, addresses the air. “People are often drowned here,” he says. After a pause, he continues. “When was the last one ?” This question is directed at the cook, who is preparing a tray of mantou (squat, white steamed bread rolls), and who now appears, wiping his doughy hand across his forehead. “Was it the Beijing athlete ?” asks Mr. Cao.

On the basis of your understanding of the above passage complete the statements given below with the help of the options that follow :

(a) One benefit of sitting in the last row of the bus was that
(i) the narrator enjoyed the bumps.
(ii) no one stared at him.
(iii) he could see the sunflowers.
(iv) he avoided the dullness of the city.

(b) The narrator was travelling to
(i) Mount Bogda.
(ii) Heaven Lake.
(iii) a 2,000-metre high snow-peak.
(iv) Urumqi.

(c) On reaching the destination the narrator felt relieved because
(i) he had got away from the desert.
(ii) a difficult journey had come to an end.
(iii) he could watch the snow-peak.
(iv) there were thick quilts on the beds.

(d) Mount Bogda is compared to
(i) a horizontal desert surface.
(ii) a shining prism.
(iii) a Constable landscape.
(iv) the overcast sky.

Answer the questions given below briefly
(e) Which two things in the bus made the narrator feel uncomfortable ?
(f) What made the scene look like a Constable landscape ?
(g) What did he regret as the bus climbed higher ?
(h) Why did the narrator like to buy food from outside ?
(i) What is ironic about the pair of trousers lent by Mr. Cao ?
(j) Why did Mr. Cao not like the narrator to swim in the lake ?
(k) Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following :
(i) sellers (Para 4)
(ii) increased (Para 7)

Suggested answer for above questions:

(a) (ii)no one stared at him
(b) (i) Heaven Lake / (ii) Mount Bogda
(c) (iv) there were thick quilts on the bed
(d) (ii)a shining prism
(e) bumpy ride ; man eating overpoweringly smelly goat’s cheese; leaking windows (any two)
(f) –green ground/ slopes dark with pines/ cattle/ clear steam, moss covered stones
(g) – he wished he had brought something warmer than a pair of shorts / the narrator did not carry warm clothes
(h) – kababs cooked on skewers over charcoal braziers, were particularly good / highly spiced / well done

(i) – several sizes too large but more than comfortable
(j) – because people often drowned there
(k) i) vendors
ii) exaggerated

9. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

1 Thackeray reached Kittur along with a small British army force and a few of his officers. He thought that the very presence of the British on the outskirts of Kittur would terrorise the rulers and people of Kittur, and that they would lay down their arms. He was quite confident that he would be able to crush the revolt in no time. He ordered that tents be erected on the eastern side for the fighting forces, and a little away on the western slopes tents be put up for the family members of the officers who had accompanied them. During the afternoon and evening of 20th October, the British soldiers were busy making arrangements for these camps.

2 On the 21st morning, Thackeray sent his political assistants to Kittur fort to obtain a written assurance from all the important officers of Kittur rendering them answerable for the security of the treasury of Kittur. They, accordingly, met Sardar Gurusiddappa and other officers of Kittur and asked them to comply with the orders of Thackeray. They did not know that the people were in a defiant mood. The commanders of Kittur dismissed the agent’s orders as no documents could be signed without sanction from Rani Chennamma.

3 Thackeray was enraged and sent for the commander of the Horse Artillery, which was about 100 strong, and ordered him to rush his artillery into the Fort and capture the commanders of the Desai‖s army. When the Horse Artillery stormed into the fort, Sardar Gurusiddappa, who had kept his men on full alert, promptly commanded his men to repel and chase them away. The Kittur forces made a bold front and overpowered the British soldiers.

4 In the meanwhile, the Desai‖s guards had shut the gates of the fort and the British Horse Artillery men, being completely overrun and routed, had to get out through the escape window. Rani‖s soldiers chased them out of the fort, killing a few of them until they retreated to their camps on the outskirts.

5 A few of the British had found refuge in some private residences, while some were hiding in their tents. The Kittur soldiers captured about forty persons and brought them to the palace. These included twelve children and a few women from the British officers‖ camp. When they were brought in the presence of the Rani, she ordered the soldiers to be imprisoned. For the women and children she had only gentleness, and admonished her soldiers for taking them into custody. At her orders, these women and children were taken inside the palace and given food and shelter. Rani came down from her throne, patted the children lovingly and told them that no harm would come to them. 6 She, then, sent word through a messenger to Thackeray that the British women and children were safe and could be taken back any time. Seeing this noble gesture of the Rani, he was moved. He wanted to meet this gracious lady and talk to her. He even thought of trying to persuade her to enter into an agreement with the British to stop all hostilities in lieu of an inam (prize) of eleven villages. His offer was dismissed with a gesture of contempt. She had no wish to meet Thackeray. That night she called Sardar Gurusiddappa and other leading Sardars, and after discussing all the issues came to the conclusion that there was no point in meeting Thackeray who had come with an army to threaten Kittur into submission to British sovereignty.

On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, complete the statements given below with the help of the options that follow :

(a) Thackeray was a/an
(i) British tourist.
(ii) army officer.
(iii) advisor to the Rani of Kittur.
(iv) treasury officer.

(b) British women and children came to Kittur to
(i) visit Kittur.
(ii) enjoy life in tents.
(iii) stay in the palace.
(iv) give company to the army officers.

Answer the following questions briefly :
(c) Why did Thackeray come to Kittur ?
(d) Why did Kittur officials refuse to give the desired assurance to Thackeray ?
(e) What happened to the Horse Artillery ?
(f) How do we know that the Rani was a noble soul ?
(g) How, in your opinion, would the British women have felt after meeting the Rani ?
(h) Why did the Rani refuse to meet Thackeray ?
(i) Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following :
(i) aggressive/refusing to obey (Para 2)
(ii) entered forcibly (Para 3)

Suggested answer for above questions:

(a) (ii) army officer
(b) (iv) give company to the army officers
(c) to crush the revolt / to terrorise the rulers and people of Kittur / to make them lay down arms
(d) – no documents could be signed without sanction from Rani Chennamma/people in a defiant mood
(e) – repelled and chased / overpowered and chased the British soldiers / completely overrun and routed / some were killed
(f) provided food / gave shelter / patted children lovingly /sent a word of their safety / had only gentleness
(g) – inspired gratitude/ feeling of respect / thankful / pleased/ relieved / surprised / impressed (any other relevant answer)
(h) pointless to meet him as he had come with an army to threaten Kittur into submission
(i) i) stormed
ii) defiant

10. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

The most alarming of man‖s assaults upon the environment is the contamination of air, earth, rivers and sea with lethal materials. This pollution is for the most part irrevocable; the chain of evil it initiates is for the most part irreversible. In this contamination of the environment, chemicals are the sinister partners of radiation in changing the very nature of the world; radiation released through nuclear explosions into the air, comes to the earth in rain, lodges into the soil, enters the grass or corn, or wheat grown there and reaches the bones of a human being, there to remain until his death. Similarly, chemicals sprayed on crops lie long in soil, entering living organisms, passing from one to another in a chain of poisoning and death. Or they pass by underground streams until they emerge and combine into new forms that kill vegetation, sicken cattle, and harm those who drink from once pure wells.

It took hundreds of millions of years to produce the life that now inhabits the earth and reach a state of adjustment and balance with its surroundings. The environment contains elements that are hostile as well as supporting. Even within the light of the sun, there are short-wave radiations with power to injure. Given time, life has adjusted and a balance reached. For time is the essential ingredient, but in the modern world there is no time.

The rapidity of change and the speed with which new situations are created follow the heedless pace of man rather than the deliberate pace of nature. Radiation is no longer the bombardment of cosmic rays; it is now the unnatural creation of man’s tampering with the atom. The chemicals to which life is asked to make adjustments are no longer merely calcium and silica and copper and all the rest of the minerals washed out of the rocks and carried in the rivers to the sea; they are the synthetic creations of man’s inventive mind, brewed in his laboratories, and having no counterparts in nature.

(a) On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations (wherever necessary — minimum four) and a format you consider suitable.
(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words.

Suggested answer for above questions:

(a)
Title:
Assault on Environment/ Environment vs Man/ Environmental Pollution/ Man-made Pollutants or any suitable title

  1. Contaminants of Environment/ Environment Contaminated
    1.1. Where
    1.1.1. air
    1.1.2. earth
    1.1.3. rivers & seas

1.2. Features
1.2.1. irreversible
1.2.2. irrevocable

  1. Role of Man
    2.1. tampering atoms- creating radiation
    2.2. creating synthetic material causing chemical pollution
  2. Nuclear Pollutants
    3.1. rad. released through nuc. explosions
    3.2. enter earth thru rain
    3.3. enter grass and crops
    3.4. reach human bones
  3. Chemicals Pollutants
    4.1. sprayed on crops
    4.2. enter liv. org.
    4.3. kill vegetation
    4.4. sicken cattle
    4.5. harm those drinking from wells

Summary
(b) The summary should include all the important points given in
the notes.
Content 2 marks
Expression

11. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

1. I was only a year and some months younger than Valodya; we grew up, studied and played together. No distinction of elder and younger was made between us. But just about the time I am speaking of I began to realize that I was no companion for him, either in age, in interests or in ability. It even seemed to me that Valodya himself was aware of his superiority and was proud of it. This idea (it may have been a wrong one) was inspired by my vanity which suffered every time I came in contact with him. He was better than me in everything; at lessons, in arguments and in manners, and all this took me farther from him and caused me moral anguish which I could not understand. When Valodya was given a tucked linen shirt for the first time I was unhappy for not having a shirt like that. I am sure I would have felt happier if I was convinced that every time he arranged his collar it was not done to annoy me.

2. What tormented me most was that it sometimes seemed to me Valodya understood what was going on inside me but tried to hide it. But perhaps my sensitiveness and tendency to analyse deceived me in this case. It may be Valodya did not feel at all as I did. He was impulsive and his enthusiasm in different hobbies did not last long.

3. He would suddenly develop a passion for pictures, himself take up painting, spend all his money buying them and beg them of his drawingmaster, of papa and of grandmamma. Then it would be a craze for curios to decorate his table, collecting them from every room in the house, or a mania for novels which he obtained on the sly and read all day and night. I could not help being impressed by his hobbies but I was too proud to imitate him and too young and not independent enough to choose a hobby for myself. But there was nothing I envied so much as Valodya’s happy large heartedness which showed itself most strikingly when we quarreled. I always felt that he was behaving well but I could not do likewise.

4. Once when his passion of ornaments was at its height, I went up to his table and accidentally broke an empty bright-coloured little scent bottle. “Who asked you to touch my things?” demanded Valodya coming into the room and seeing how I had upset the symmetry of the different treasures on his table. “And where is the scent bottle? You must have…..”

5. “I knocked it over by accident and it broke. What does it matter?”
“Do me the favour-never dare touch my things again”, he said, putting
the pieces of broken flask together and looking at theme sorrowfully.
“And you please don’t issue orders” I retorted, “that’s all.” And I
smiled, though I did not feel in the least like smiling.
“Yes, its nothing to you but it does matter to me,” pursued Valodya,
jerking his shoulder, a gesture he had inherited from pap. “He goes and
breaks it and then laughs, the nasty little brat!”
“I am a little brat; and you’re big but you’re stupid.”
“I am not going to quarrel with you,” said Valodya, giving me a slight
push, “go away.”
“Don’t push!”
“Get away!”
“Don’t push, I tell you!”
Valodya took my word and tried to drag me away from the table; but I
was beside myself by now; I got hold of the leg of the table and tipped it
over. “There now!” And all his china and glass ornaments crashed to the
floor. “You disgusting little boy!” cried Valodya, trying to save some of
his falling treasures.
“Well, now it is all over between us,” I thought as I left the room, “we have quarreled for good.”

6. As soon as afternoon lessons were over I left the room. I was too scared, uncomfortable and ashamed to be alone with my brother. After our history lesson in the evening I took my exercise books and started towards the door. As I passed Valodya, though I wanted to go up to him and make friends I scowled and put on an angry expression. At that moment Valodya raised his head and, with a meaningful smile, looked me full in the face. Our eyes met and I knew that he understood me; but some irresistible feeling made me turn away.

7. “Nicky!” he said in a most natural voice without a scrap of pathos. “Don’t be cross any more. Forgive me if I offended you.” And he held out his hand. Something that came higher and higher seemed to be pressing my chest and stopping my breath but this only lasted a second; tears came to my eyes and I felt better. “Forgive….m-me, Val-dya,” I stammered, squeezing his hand. Valodya looked at me as if he could not make out at all why there should be tears in my eyes. – Leo Tolstoy (Excerpts from his autobiographical novel ‘Boyhood’ originally written in Russian, translation by C.J. Haqar)

On the basis of your reading of the above excerpt, answer the following questions briefly:-

(a) Why did Nicky feel that he was not an apt companion for Valodaya?
(b) About which aspect of Valodya’s personality was Nicky most upset?
(c) Why did Nicky feel uncomfortable and ashamed to be alone with his brother ?
(d) What did Nicky do to show that he was sorry for all that he had done in the morning?
(e) Was the narrator repentent for his behavior? How do you know?
(f) What does Valodaya’s behavior show about his character?
(g) Choose the correct option:
Which of the following is NOT true for Valodaya?
(i) He was fond of reading.
(ii) He was inclined towards painting.
(iii) He was reckless with money.
(iv) He liked collecting curios and works of art.

(h) “I am a little brat, and you’re big but you are stupid.” This line highlights that Nicky –
(i) was disrespectful towards his brother
(ii) was impulsive and volatile, but loved his brother
(iii) was jealous of his brother
(iv) was unapologetic towards his brother

(i) Choose the synonym of pride (para 1)
(i) vanity
(ii) superiority
(iii) anguish
(iv) distinction

(j) Choose the antonym of comforted (para 2)
(i) deceived
(ii) tormented
(iii) impulsive
(iv)enthusiasm

(k) Choose the right answer which explains the underlined phrase:
We have quarreled for good

(i) It is very good
(ii) Forever
(iii) For good reason
(iv) For good things to follow

(l) “Something that came higher and higher seemed to be pressing my chest,” implies
(i) his brother towered over him.
(ii) he was in a state of confusion.
(iii) his brother tried to overpower him.
(iv) he felt choked with emotions.

Suggested answer for above questions:

(a) felt that Valodaya was far superior to him in everything – in arguments, manners and lessons
(b) Nicky thought Valodaya understood what was going on inside him but he tried to hide it.
(c) felt guilty of breaking the precious things, didn’t know how to reconcile with his brother, embarrassed about his bad conduct
(d) overwhelmed with onslaught of emotion, eyes filled with tears, he cried out his apology
(e) yes, scared, uncomfortable, guilt ridden, ashamed to be alone with his brother
(f) large hearted, avoided getting into fights, generous, well mannered, forgiving
(g) (iii) He was reckless with money
(h) (ii) was impulsive and volatile, but loved his brother
(i) (i) vanity
(j) (iv) tormented
(k) (iii) For good reason
(l) (iv) He felt choked with emotions

12. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

1. Academics has always been an essential part of human development. It prepares us to survive in the outside world and establish an identity of our own. But, is an individual’s development restricted to merely academics? In India, from an early age, we have been taught that education is limited to the boundaries of academics only; the idea of getting out into the field, for gaining practical experience, is always considered a hoax. This has hindered students’ development. But, the truth is that education represents a considerably broader field than we know of it. Our teaching, from the basics, has been focused on getting good grades and job offers, rather than being creative and unique.

2. In the 21stcentury, the pure academic type of education is slowly paving way for a whole new type. The paradigm shift in the whole education system is evident. People have now come to understand that education is a 360 degree activity that should focus on students’ overall development, rather than restricting him/her to the classroom.

3. Co-curricular activities that take place outside the classroom but reinforce or supplement classroom curriculum, in some way, have become a point of focus today. These activities help in the growth of the child, in more than one way. Participating in such activities helps youngsters grow mentally, socially and individually. Intellectual development of a student is developed in the classroom, but for the aesthetic development such as team- building, character- building, and physical growth, students must step out into the outside world. For instance, if a student is a part of school football team, he/ she will learn team- work and coordination, in a practical manner, which cannot be taught in the class.

4. Similarly, in colleges and institutions, there is a need for practical exposure so that the students can experience the actual working of an industry. For example, taking a student to a manufacturing firm will give him/ her the real insight and better learning of the industry. Catering to this change, most professional colleges including Bschools, have started providing practical exposure to students through regular guest lectures, industrial visits, conferences, seminars, cultural festivals, and so on. With industry visits, students are able to better identify their prospective areas of work in the overall organizational function. Moreover, they help enhance interpersonal skills and communication techniques. In addition, guest lectures are equally important for all – round development of students. It is a great way for students to gain maximum exposure, as guest speakers talk about their real- life experiences and not what is there in the text books.

5. Through such events, students are made to participate and coordinate different events wherein, they get to know how exactly things are managed. Classroom teaching provides the foundation, and co-curricular or extra- curricular activities provide practical exposure and opportunities to implement what students learn in the classroom. This helps in developing the overall personality of the students, inculcating various soft – skills in them, which otherwise are difficult to teach. Clearly, life beyond academics creates creative and empowered professionals. (507 Words)

1.1 On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, answer any five of the questions given below by choosing the most appropriate option:

a. Students’ development is hindered by
i. limiting education to academic boundaries.
ii. getting out to the field.
iii. being creative and unique.
iv.gaining practical knowledge.

b. The shift in the education system means
i. to restrict to classroom activities.
ii. to focus on academic development.
iii.to ignore 360 degree activity.
iv.to focus on overall development.

c. Co- Curricular activities that take place outside the classroom do not help in
i. teamwork and co-ordination.
ii. mental and social growth.
iii. intellectual development.
iv. character building.

d. Guest speakers talk about
i. all round development.
ii. their real life experiences.
iii. what is in text books.
iv. gaining exposure.

e. Classroom teaching provides
i. practical exposure
ii. opportunities to implement what is learnt in classroom
iii. chance to learn soft skills
iv. the foundation

f. Life beyond academics facilitates
i. organizational functions
ii. creativity
iii. professional fields
iv. industrial visits

1.2 Answer the following questions briefly :
a. From earlier times what has not been the focus of education?
b. Where should students go for aesthetic development?
c. What kind of co- curricular activities have become points of focus today?
d. What will give children a better insight into industry?
e. Why are soft skills difficult to teach in the classroom?

1.3 Pick out the words/phrases from the passage which are similar in meaning to the following:
i. untrue (Para 1)
ii. cooperative effort (Para 3)

Suggested answer for above questions:

  1. 1.1 On the basis of your understanding of the passage, complete the statements given below by choosing the most appropriate option: ( Any five)

(a) i. limiting education to academic boundaries.
(b) iv. to focus on overall development.
(c) iii.iIntellectual development.
(d) ii. their real life experiences.
(e) iv. the foundation
(f) ii. creativity

1.2 Answer the following briefly:
(a) Being creative and unique
(b)Students must step out into the outside world.
(c) Co-curricular activities that take place outside the classroom but reinforce or supplement classroom curriculum.
(d) Visiting industries will give a better insight into industries
(e)Soft skills are developed only through practical exposure and opportunities to implement what they have learnt.

1.3 Find words from the passage which mean the same as the
following:

i. Hoax
ii. Coordination

13. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

Artificial intelligence (AI) is making a difference to how legal work is done, but it isn’t the threat it is made out to be. AI is making impressive progress and shaking up things all over the world today. The assumption that advancements in technology and artificial intelligence will render any profession defunct is just that, an assumption and a false one. The only purpose this assumption serves is creating mass panic and hostility towards embracing technology that is meant to make our lives easier.

Let us understand what this means explicitly for the legal world. The ambit of AI includes recognizing human speech and objects, making decisions based on data, and translating languages. Tasks that can be defined as ‘search-and-find’ type can be performed by AI.

Introducing AI to this profession will primarily be for the purpose of automating mundane, tedious tasks that require negligible human intelligence. The kind of artificial intelligence that is employed by industries in the current scene, when extended to law will enable quicker services at a lower price. AI is meant to automate a number of tasks that take up precious working hours lawyers could be devoting to tasks that require discerning, empathy, and trust- qualities that cannot be replicated by even the most sophisticated form of AI. The legal profession is one of the oldest professions in the world. Thriving over a 1000 years; trust, judgement, and diligence are the pillars of this profession. The most important pillar is the relationship of trust between a lawyer and clients, which can only be achieved through human connection and interaction.

While artificial intelligence can be useful in scanning and organizing documents pertaining to a case, it cannot perform higher-level tasks such as sharp decisionmaking, relationship-building with valuable clients and writing legal briefs, advising clients, and appearing in court. These are over and above the realm of computerization.

The smooth proceeding of a case is not possible without sound legal research. While presenting cases lawyers need to assimilate information in the form of legal research by referring to a number of relevant cases to find those that will favour their client’s motion. Lawyers are even required to thoroughly know the opposing stand and supporting legal arguments they can expect to prepare a watertight defense strategy. AI, software that operates on natural language enables electronic discovery of information relevant to a case, contract reviews, and automation generation of legal documents.

AI utilizes big-data analytics which enables visualization of case data. It also allows for creation of a map of the cases which were cited in previous cases and their resulting verdicts, as per the website Towards Data Science. The probability of a positive outcome of a case can be predicted by leveraging predictive analytics with machine learning. This is advantageous to firms as they can determine the return on investment in litigation and whether an agreement or arbitration should be considered. (484 Words)

(a) On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary-minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words.

Suggested answer for above questions:

Title: Artificial Intelligence: Not a threat
NOTES

  1. Not a threat
    1.1 is a help
    1.2 makes life easier
    1.3 no profession defunct
  2. AI will help legal field
    2.1 recog human speech and object
    2.2 making decisions based on data
    2.3 translates langs
    2.4 do search and find tasks
  3. AI cannot perform high level tasks like
    3.1 writing legal briefs
    3.2 advising clients
    3.3 apprng in courts
    3.4 sharp decision making
  4. Function of AI
    4.1 collates data
    4.2 predicts probable outcomes
    4.3 tells return on invst
    4.4 considering agreement or arbitration

Summary
Artificial Intelligence is not a threat but makes life easier especially in the legal field. It cannot perform certain high level tasks like writing legal briefs, advising clients, making sharp decisions and appearing in courts. It can collate data, aid research and decisions based on data, recognize human speech and translate languages. It can also predict probable outcomes, tell return on investment, consider agreement or arbitration and is thus advantageous to legal firms.

14. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :

1. Mankind’s fascination with gold is as old as civilization itself. The ancient Egyptians esteemed gold, which had religious significance to them, and King Tutankhamen was buried in a solid – gold coffin 3300 years ago. The wandering Israelites worshipped a golden calf, and the legendary King Midas asked that everything he touched be turned into gold.

2. Not only is gold beautiful, but it is virtually indestructible. It will not rust or corrode. Gold coins and products fabricated from the metal have survived undamaged for centuries. Gold is extremely easy to work with. One ounce, which is about the size of a cube of sugar, can be beaten into a sheet nearly 100 square feet in size, and becomes so thin that light passes through it. An ounce of gold can also be stretched into a wire 50 miles long. Gold conducts electricity better than any other substance except copper and sliver, and it is particularly important in the modern electronics industry.

3. People have always longed to possess gold. Unfortunately, this longing has also brought out the worst in the human character. The Spanish conquerors robbed palaces, temples and graves and killed thousands of Indians in their ruthless search for gold. Often the only rule in young California during the days of the gold rush was exercised by the mob with a rope. Even today, the economic running of South Africa’s gold mines depends largely on the employment of black labourers who are paid about 40 pounds a month, plus room and board, and who must work in conditions that can only be described as cruel. About 400 miners are killed in mine accidents in South Africa each year, or one for every two tons of gold produced.

4. Much of gold’s value lies in its scarcity. Only about 80,000 tons have been mined in the history of the world. All of it could be stored in a vault 60 feet square, or a supertanker.

5. Great Britain was the first country to adopt the gold standard, when the Master of the Mint, Sir Isaac Newton, established a fixed price for gold in 1717. But until the big discoveries of gold in the last half of the nineteenth century – starting in California in 1848 and later in Australia and South Africa – there simply wasn’t enough gold around for all the trading nations to link their currencies to the precious metal.

6. An out – of – work prospector named George Harrison launched South Africa into the gold age in 1886 when he discovered the metal on a farm near what is now Johannesburg. Harrison was given a 12 Pounds reward by the farmer. He then disappeared and reportedly was eaten by a lion.

7. One of the big gold – mining areas in the Soviet Union is the Kolyma River region, once infamous for its prison camp. The camp has gone, but in a way nothing has changed. Many ex – prisoners have stayed on to work in the mines and are supervised by ex – guards.

8. Despite the current rush to buy gold, 75 per cent of the metal goes into jewellery. Italy is the biggest user of gold for this purpose, and many Italian jewelers even tear up their wooden floors and burn them to recover the tiny flecks of gold.

9. Historically, the desire to hoard gold at home has been primarily an occupation of the working and peasant classes, who have no faith in paper money. George Bernard Shaw defended their instincts eloquently: “You have to choose between trusting the natural stability of the honesty and intelligence of the members of the government,’ he said „and with due respect to these gentlemen, I advise you …. to vote for gold.’ (From an article in Newsweek)

1.1. On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it using recognizable abbreviations, wherever necessary. Use a format you considersuitable. Supply a suitable title.

1.2Write a short summary of the passage in 80 words.

Suggested answer for above questions:

1.1
TITLE : GOLD- A FASCINATING METAL
Notes:
1.Mankind’s fascination with gold
1.1 as old as cvz
1.2 the ancient Egyptians honoured gold
1.2.1reglysig to them
1.2.2 King Tutankhamen was buried a solid – gold coffin
1.3 wandering Israelites worshipped a golden cay
1.4 King Midas wanted everything that he touched become gold.

2.Qualities of gold
2.1 virtually indestructible
2.1.1 does not rust or corrode
2.2.2 can be beaten into a sheet nearly 100 sq. feet
2.2.3can be stretched into a wire 50 miles long.
2.2 conducts electricity better than any other substance
2.3imp. In the modern electronics industry

3.Longing for gold can be destructive
3.1 brought out the worst in human char.
3.2in search of gold the Spanish conquerors
3.2.1 robbed palaces, temples and graves
3.2.2 killed thousands of Indians
3.3 South Africa gold mines dependent on black labourers
3.3.1 paid about 40 pnds a mth
3.3.2a room and board
3.3.3 400 miners killed in mine accidents
3.4gold’s value in its scarcity
3.4.1about 80,000 mined in the history of the world.

  1. History of Gold
    4.1 Great Britain – first century to adopt the gold standard
    4.2 fixed price for gold established
    4.3 big discoveries made in the last half of the 19thCent.
    4.4South Africa launched into the gold age in 1886.

5.Prisoners as Miner Workers
5.1big gold – mining areas in the Soviet Union
5.1.1 infamous for its prison camp
5.1.2 the camp gone
5.1.3 ex-prisoners worked in the mines

6.Gold jewellery – the main attraction
6.1 75% of metal for jewellery
6.2 Italy – the biggest user
6.3 working and peasant classes hv no faith in paper money

Table of Abbreviations

  1. cvz – civilization
  2. sig – significant
  3. sq. – square
  4. imp. – important
  5. char – character
  6. pnds – pounds
  7. mth – month
  8. cent – century

1.2 Summary
Mankind’s fascination with gold is as old as civilization. The ancient Egyptians honoured gold. Gold is not only beautiful, but indestructible. It is easy to work with an ounce of gold can be stretched into 50 miles long wire. It is important in the modern electronics industry. But man’s longing for gold can be destructive as it has brought out the worst in human character Great Britain was the first country to adopt the gold standard. 75 per cent of gold goes into jewellery as middle class people have no faith in paper money George Bernard show advised to note for gold.

15. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:

1. Learning from experience, can be complicated. It can be much more difficult to learn from success than from failure. If we fail, we think carefully about the precise cause. Success can indiscriminately reinforce all our prior actions.

2. A second theme concerns the power of chance events. As I think across a wide variety of settings in my life, I am struck by the incredible role played by the interplay of chance events with intentional choices. While the turning points themselves are indeed often fortuitous, how we respond to them is anything but so. It is this very quality of how we respond systematically to chance events that is crucial.

3. Of course, the mindset one works with is also quite critical. It matters greatly whether one believes that ability is inherent or that it can be developed. The former view, a fixed mindset, creates a tendency to avoid challenges, to ignore useful negative feedback and leads people to plateau early and not achieve their full potential. The latter view, a growth mindset, leads to a tendency to embrace challenges, to learn from criticism and enables people to reach higher levels of achievement.

4. The fourth theme is cornerstone of the Indian spiritual tradition: selfknowledge. Indeed, the highest form of knowledge, it is said, is selfknowledge. I believe this greater awareness and knowledge of oneself is what ultimately helps develop a more grounded belief in oneself, courage, determination and, above all, humility – all qualities which enables one to wear one’s success with dignity and grace.

5. I would like to end with some words of advice. Do you believe that your future is preordained, and is already set? Or, do you believe that your future is yet to be written and that it will depend upon sometimes fortuitous events? Do you believe that these events can provide turning points to which you will respond with energy and enthusiasm? Do you believe that you will learn from these events and that you will reflect on your setbacks? Do you believe that you will examine your successes with even greater care? I hope you believe that the future will be shaped by several turning points with great learning opportunities. In fact, this is the path I have walked to much advantage.

6. A final word: When, one day, you have made your mark on the world, remember that, in the ultimate analysis, we are all mere temporary custodians of the wealth we generate, whether it be financial, intellectual or emotional. The best use of all your wealth is to share it with those less fortunate.

2.1.On the basis of your understanding of the passage, answer the following in your own words :
i)How do people with a positive mindset benefit from experience?
ii)How can experience help a person or an enterprise to grow?
iii)Why does the writer feel it is easier to learn from failure than from success?
iv) What is author’s word of caution when one is finally successful in the world?
v) How does self-knowledge help an individual?

2.2 Find out the words/phrases from the passage which are similar in meaning to the following :

a) Incredible
i. Selfish
ii. Unbelievable
iii. Mysterious
iv. Precise

b) Fortituous
i. Accidental
ii. Fortunate
iii. Futuristic
iv. Protector

c) Cornerstone
i. Foundation
ii. Difficulty
iii. Beginning
iv. Development

d) Preordained
i. Destined
ii. Predicted
iii. Permanent
iv. Exciting

e) Custodian
i. Caretaker
ii. Compensate
iii. Energetic
iv. Empathetic

Suggested answer for above questions:

Key: –
i) think of the precise cause
ii) a tendency to avoid challenges, to ignore useful negative feedback and leads people to plateau early and not achieve their full potential.
iii)embrace challenges, to learn from criticism and enable people to reach higher levels of achievement.
iv) to remember that we are temporary custodians of the wealth we have
v)Develop grounded belief in oneself, Courage, Humility, etc

2.2
a) ii) unbelievable
b) i) accidental
c) i) foundation
d) i) destined
e) i) caretaker

Unseen Passage for Class 12 English | Latest Unseen passage

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Frequently Asked Questions-Unseen Passage for class 12(FAQ)

Q.1: How will I prepare myself to solve the unseen passage for class 12?


Answer: In the Exam, you will be given a small part of any story and you need to answer them to score good marks in your score. So firstly understand what question is being asked. Then, go to the passage and try to find the clue for your question. Read all the alternatives very carefully. Do not write the answer until you feel that you have selected the correct answer.

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Q.5 How do I manage time in unseen passage for class 12?


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