English Grammar Pronoun Notes and Questions

Introduction
Pronoun is a word which is used in the place of noun.

See the following sentence where pronouns are not used:
Steve saw a snake in the garden, this snake Steve thought would hurt Steve, unless
Steve killed the snake with a stick, this stick Steve had in Steve’s hand.
The above given sentences appear very poor because of the repetition of noun.

See the following sentence where pronouns have been used to avoid the repetition of noun.
Steve saw a snake in the garden, which he thought would hurt him, unless he killed it with a stick which he had in his hand.
Now the same sentence appears as a proper one.

Points to keep in mind
• Since a Pronoun is used instead of a Noun, it must be something equivalent to a Noun.
• Since a Pronoun is used instead of a Noun, it must be of the same number: gender, and person as the Noun it stands for.

Look at the following sentences:
(i) The principal rewarded Steve because of his academic excellence.
(ii) James purchased a laptop. It cost him Rs.40000.
(iii) Serena runs a shop in the vicinity of her town. Actually she owns this shop.
In the above given sentences, the words his, it and she have been used in places of Steve, laptop and Serena (all Nouns). All these words are pronouns.

NOTE: A Pronoun can be used as a subject and as an object.

Kinds of Pronoun

There are eight kinds of Pronoun.
1. Personal Pronoun
2. Demonstrative Pronoun
3. Interrogative Pronoun
4. Reflexive Pronoun
5. Possessive Pronoun
6. Distributive Pronoun
7. Indefinite Pronoun
8. Emphatic or Emphasizing Pronoun

Personal Pronoun
Personal pronouns are used for a person or a thing. Personal pronouns are used for both subject and objects.

Personal Pronoun has three persons
(i) First person – the person who is speaking e.g.; I, We.
(ii) Second person – the person who is spoken to e.g.; You.
(iii) Third person – the person who is spoken of e.g.; He, She, It, They.

(i) First Person
The Pronoun which refers to the person speaking / is called the Pronoun of First Person.

Look at the following sentences:
• I helped Steve in the completion of project which was assigned to him byhis teacher.
• We were told by the officials not to touch the unidentified objects.
• James advised me to avoid the bad company.
• Our generosity helped the deprived people to live a good life.
• This farm belongs to us.
In the above given sentences, the pronouns I, we, me and us refer to the person speaking. These are Pronouns of the first person.

(ii) Second Person
The pronoun which refers to the person spoken to is called the Pronoun of Second Person.

Look at the following sentences:
• Your effort ultimately brought fruitful result for you.
• You have made the point and now it is my turn to say something about it.
In the above given sentences, the pronouns your and you refer to the person spoken to. These are Pronoun of the second person.

(iii) Third Person
The pronoun which refers to the person or thing spoken about, is called the Pronoun of Third Person.

Look at the following sentences:
• He requested me to cooperate with him in his work.
• She has work as per the norms. .
• It is ten kms away from here.
• They were playing in the field.
In the above given sentences, the pronouns he, she, it, they, him and his referto the person or thing spoken about. So these are Pronouns of the Third Person.

Look at the following underlined words:

• I felt that strange things happened to me when I was sleeping. (1 = first person)
• You explained to them that they were shy of attending the ceremony. (You = second person)
•She has proved her ability several times. (She = third person)
• I took the chair in the room. (I = first person)
• We visited the zoo yesterday. (We = first person)
• You took all the things in your possession. (You = second person)
• She was the perpetrator who drove away the car. (She = third person)
• It is now in police custody. (It = third person)
• They said that they needed the car only to make a good impression. (They = third person)
• It is an interesting book. (It = third person)

In the above given sentences, the words I, we/ you/ he, she, they, and it are used for all the three persons. These are Personal Pronouns.

Demonstrative Pronoun
The Pronoun which is used to indicate an object for which it is used, is called Demonstrative Pronoun.

Look at the underlined words in the following sentences:
• This is the correct way to negotiate with the people.
• These are the repercussions of such calamity.
• That incident made me envious.
• Those are beautiful flowers.
In the above given sentences, underlined words this, that, these and those are used to indicate one or more things that is/are nearby or far from the speaker.
These are Demonstrative Pronouns.

Interrogative Pronoun
The pronoun which is used to ask a question is called an Interrogative Pronoun. Look at the following sentences:
• Which plan has LIC introduced?
• What made you feel pathetic?
• Who are you to ask me about my personal belongings?
• Whom  do you want to meet?
• Whose hand-writing has been verified by the expert?
In the above given sentences, underlined words which, who, what, whom and whose are used for asking questions. So these are Interrogative Pronouns.

NOTE:
In general who, whom and whose are used for persons. Which and that are used for animals and things.

Reflexive Pronoun
The pronoun which is used as object of the verb when the doer and the receiver of the action is same, is called Reflexive Pronoun.

Look at the following underlined words in the given sentences:
• He looked into the matter himself  just to ensure accuracy.
• I myself caught the thief who was running.
• We ourselves made the arrangement for the seminar.
• They dragged themselves into the controversy.
• You blame yourself for the delay.
In the above given sentences, himself, myself, ourselves, themselves and yourself are used as object of the verb in each sentence where the subject and object are the same person or thing.
In another way it can be said that in these sentences the doer and the receiver of the action is the same person or thing. So these underlined words are Reflexive Pronouns.

Points to keep in mind
• The noun to which the relative pronoun refers is called Antecedents.
• Relative Pronouns join two sentences.

Possessive Pronoun
The pronoun which shows possession is called Possessive Pronoun.

Look at the following underlined words in the given sentences:
• The beautiful car parked there is mine.
• The computer can store a lot of data in its memory.
• The fully grown tree is theirs.
• I didn’t get the books so took hers.
In the above given sentences, underlined words mine, its, theirs and hers are used to show possession. So these are Possessive Pronouns.

Distributive Pronoun
The pronoun which is used as distributer of a person or thing is called Distributive Pronoun. Look at the following underlined words in the given sentences:

• Each of the boys was given a trophy.
• Either road will lead to the railway station. 
• Neither team could achieve a decisive victory.
In the above given sentences, the words each, either and neither are used as distributer of person/ place or thing (all nouns). So these are Distributive Pronouns.

Indefinite Pronoun
The pronoun which is used to refer to a noun in general way is called Indefinite Pronoun.

Look at the following underlined words in the given sentences:
• All are welcome to attend the concert.
• Anybody can come from the group to play this game.
• Few buses were running on the roads due to general strike.
• Everything will be taken proper care.
• Many people came to know about the incident.
In these underlined sentences, the words all, anybody, few, everything and many refer to persons or things in general way. So these are Indefinite Pronouns.

Emphatic or Emphasizing Pronoun

The pronoun which is used to emphasize a noun or a pronoun is called Emphatic or Emphasizing Pronoun.

Look at the following underlined words given in the sentences:

• I myself carried the bag to the station.
• We served the food ourselves.
• You solve your problem yourself.
• Keshav planted the trees himself.
• Sushma made coffee herself.
• They themselves arranged the meeting.
• The roof itself fell down on the ground.

In the above given sentences, the words myself, ourselves, yourself, himself, herself, themselves, and itself have been used to emphasize either person or thing. So these are Emphatic or Emphasizing Pronouns.

Relative Pronoun
Pronouns used to combine or relate sentences together are known as Relative Pronouns.

Look at the following underlined words in the given sentences:
Ø The man who cheated you is a thief.
Ø I found the pen which I lost yesterday.
Ø This is the house that Steve purchased.
Ø The woman whom you met in the market is my mother.

In the above given sentences, the words who, which, that and whom have been used to combine or relate sentences together. These are Relative Pronouns.

Reciprocal Pronoun
Pronoun used to talk about mutual relationship are known as Reciprocal Pronouns.

Look at the following underlined words given in sentences:
♦ They are making fun of one another.
♦ The two boxers feel jealous of each other.
In the above given sentences, the words one another, each other have been used to talk about mutual relationship. So, these are Reciprocal Pronouns.

Usage of the Pronoun ‘lt’
(A) The pronoun ‘it’ is used to talk about things and animals.
I have a parrot. It can mimic my voice.
My uncle presented me a watch. It was made in Switzerland.
She saw a cat. It had big eyes.

(B) The pronoun ‘it’ is used for children whose sex cannot be determined.
A child cries when it gets hungry.
My brother’s baby is very naughty. It never stays at one place.

(C) The pronoun ‘it’ is used to lay stress or emphasis.
It was Mahatma Gandhi who led our freedom struggle.
It was Rabindranath Tagore who composed our National Anthem.
It was India who defeated Pakistan.

(D) The pronoun ‘it’ is used to talk about time, weather, temperature, etc.
It is raining today.
It was hot yesterday.
It was silence in the library

Write the kind of pronoun of underlined word.
She has meticulously worked out on her plan.
Answer:
Personal Pronoun.

The man whom you talked is a dogmatic person.
Answer:
Relative Pronoun.

That is the monument built by the Mughals in fifteenth century.
Answer:
Demonstrative Pronoun.

Which of these pets is yours?
Answer:
Possessive Pronoun

Choose the kind of pronoun of each underlined word.
Whom do you like to favour in this election?
(A) Personal Pronoun
(B) Reflexive Pronoun
(C) Demonstrative Pronoun
(D) Possessive Pronoun
(E) Interrogative Pronoun

Answer

E

Explanation: In the underlined word ‘Whom’ has been used to ask a question. So the underlined word ‘Whom’ is Interrogative Pronoun.

I myself wrote the story with a great precision.
(A) Reflexive Pronoun
(B) Personal Pronoun
(C) Demonstrative Pronoun
(D) Possessive Pronoun
(E) Interrogative Pronoun

Answer

A

Explanation: In the underlined word ‘myself’ has been used as object of the verb when the doer and the receiver of the action is same. So the underlined word ‘myself’ is Reflexive Pronoun.

Summary

Personal Pronoun is used for a person or a thing.
Demonstrative Pronouns: The pronoun used to point out the object we talk about is called Demonstrative Pronouns.
Interrogative Pronoun: The pronoun which is used to ask a question is called Interrogative Pronoun.
Reflexive Pronouns: The pronoun which is used to show the effect of the action done by the subject on itself.
Possessive Pronoun: The pronoun which shows possession is called Possessive Pronoun.
Distributive Pronoun: The pronoun which is used as distributer of a person or thing is called Distributive Pronoun.
Indefinite Pronoun: The pronoun which is used to refer to a noun in general way is called Indefinite Pronoun.
Emphatic or Emphasizing Pronoun: The pronoun which is used to emphasize a noun or a pronoun is called
◊ Emphatic or Emphasizing Pronoun.

Choose the kind of pronoun of underlined word.

Serena reached there herself.
(A) Reflexive Pronoun
(B) Personal Pronoun
(C) Interrogative Pronoun
(D) Demonstrative Pronoun
(E) Possessive Pronoun

Answer:

A

That picnic basket is theirs.
(A) Reflexive Pronoun
(B) Demonstrative Pronoun
(C) Interrogative Pronoun
(D) Possessive Pronoun
(E) Personal Pronoun

Answer:

D

She herself caught the thief.
(A) Reflexive Pronoun
(B) Demonstrative Pronoun
(C) Interrogative Pronoun
(D) Possessive Pronoun
(E) Personal Pronoun

Answer:

A

That old motorcycle is mine?
(A) Possessive Pronoun
(B) Reflexive Pronoun
(C) Personal Pronoun
(D) Interrogative Pronoun
(E) Demonstrative Pronoun

Answer:

A

He bought himself a pair of jeans.
(A) Possessive Pronoun
(B) Interrogative Pronoun
(C) Demonstrative pronoun
(D) Reflexive Pronoun
(E) Personal Pronoun

Answer

D

His room is like ours.
(A) Reflexive Pronoun
(B) Personal Pronoun
(C) Demonstrative Pronoun
(D) Interrogative Pronoun
(E) Possessive Pronoun

Answer

E

This is my brother’s bungalow.
(A) Reflexive Pronoun
(B) Possessive Pronoun
(C) Interrogative Pronoun
(D) Personal Pronoun
(E) Demonstrative Pronoun

Answer:

E

They are making fun of one another.
(A) Interrogative Pronoun
(B) Demonstrative Pronoun
(C) Reciprocal Pronoun
(D) Reflexive Pronoun
(E) Personal Pronoun

Answer:

C


Which of these bicycle is yours?

(A) Personal Pronoun
(B) Interrogative Pronoun
(C) Reflexive Pronoun
(D) Demonstrative Pronoun
(E) Interrogative Pronoun

Answer

B

The man who cheated you is a thief.
(A) Distributive Pronoun
(B) Personal Pronoun
(C) Interrogative Pronoun
(D) Relative Pronoun
(E) Possessive Pronoun

Answer

D

Explanation for selected Questions

1In this underlined word, the word ‘herself’ has been used as object of the verb when the doer and the receiver of the action is same. So the underlined word ‘herself’ is Reflexive Pronoun.

2In this underlined word, the word ‘theirs’ shows possession. So the underlined word ‘theirs’ is Possessive Pronoun.

3In this underlined words, the word ‘herself’ has been used as object of the verb when the doer and the receiver of the action is sam So the underlined word ‘herself’ is Reflexive Pronoun.

4In this underlined word, the word ‘mine’ shows possession. So the underlined word ‘mine’ is Possessive Pronoun.

5In this underlined word, the word ‘himself’ has been used as object of the verb when the doer and the receiver of the action is sam So the underlined word ‘himself’ is Reflexive Pronoun.

6In this underlined word, the word ‘ours’ shows possession. So the underlined word ‘ours’ is Possessive Pronoun.

7In this underlined word, the word ‘this’ has been used to point out the person or thing. So the underlined word ‘this’ is Demonstrative Pronoun.

8In this underlined word, the word ‘one another’ has been used to talk about mutual relationship. So the underlined word ‘one another’ is Reciprocal Pronoun.

9. In this underlined word, the word ‘which’ has been used to ask question So the underlined word ‘which’ is Interrogative Pronoun.

10.In this underlined word, the word ‘who’ has been used to combine or relate sentence or clauses together. So the underlined word ‘who’ is Relative Pronoun.