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Environment Sustainable Development Notes for Class 11 Economics

Please refer to Environment Sustainable Development Notes for Class 11 Economics provided below. These revision notes have been prepared to help you understand and learn all important topics given in your NCERT Book for Class 11 Economics. We have provided Notes for Class 11 Economics for all chapters provided in your textbooks. These concepts, notes, and solved questions have been prepared for Standard 11 Economics by our expert teachers t help you gain more marks in exams and class tests.

Class 11 Economics Chapter 9 Environment Sustainable Development Notes

Please carefully read the Environment Sustainable Development Notes for Class 11 Economics provided below. Use them prior to your exams as this will help you to revise the entire chapter easily. We have also provided MCQ Questions for Class 11 Economics which will be asked in the upcoming exams.

Environment refers to the total planetary inheritance and the totality of all the resources.
In other words, Environment includes all the biotic (living elements) and abiotic
(non-living element) elements which influence each other.
Biotic elements – Living beings – bird, plants, humans etc
Abiotic elements – non-living elements – air, water, land etc

Functions of environment

♦ Supplies resources

Environment provides various resources such as wood, minerals, soil etc. These resources are necessary for the process of production and they are available at free of cost in the environment.

♦ Environment assimilates waste

Environment absorbs various waste generted in the process of production by human beings. Assimilation of the waste is necessary for the survival of life on planet earth.

♦ Sustains life

It includes various ingredients which are necessary for the survival of human life. This ingredients includes sin, water, soil and air.

♦ Enhance the quality of life

Environment includes land, forests, mountains, rivers etc. Man enjoys these surroundings and the scenic beauty of these elements. Such elements help in

improving the quality of life.

Carrying capacity of environment

It refers to the capacity of environment under which it is able to perform the above functions without any interruption.
The environment is able to perform the functions till the demand for its resources lies under the carrying capacity.
In other words, carrying capacity implies that resources extraction should not go above the rate of resource generation and the generation of wastes should remain within the absorption capacity of the environment.

Absorption capacity of environment

It refers to the ability of the environment to absorb degradation (waste).

Environment crises

Increase in population and urbanization leads to heavy stress on environment. Due to the various resources has already becomes extinct while others are reducing day by day.

Some of the reasons of environment crises are as follows

♦ Increase in population

One of the most important reasons of environment crises is the increase in population of humans. Increased population demand for an extra unit of resources which creates more amount of pressure on the environment.

♦ Industrial revolution

Increase in the amount of industries increases the amount of consumption of natural resources as raw material and also increases the amount of waste from these industries which ultimately result in environment crises.

♦ Extraction of resources

Extensive and intensive extraction of both renewable and non-renewable resources decreases the natural reserves of environmental resources due to which some vital resources are at the point of extinction.

♦ Affluent consumption

It refers to the spending of money on the acquiring of luxury goods and services to publicly display economic power of the income.
Increase in the trend of affluent consumption of developed countries increases the amount of consumption which leads to a greater demand of resources.

It refers to adding a substance in the environment which has harmful or poisonous effect.
In other words, pollution refers to the introduction of harmful substance in air, water and land.

Basically pollution is of 4 types

♦ Air pollution

Caused by – Burning of fossil fuels, smoke of vehicles, smoke by industries etc.

♦ Water pollution

Caused by – Dumping of chemical wastes of factories in rivers, Sewarage that flows from rivers, throwing of plastics in ocean etc.

♦ Noise pollution

Caused by – sound of vehicles, aircraft noise, industrial noise, high volume equipments etc.

♦ Land pollution

Caused by – Deforestation, Urbanization, Industrialization etc.

Global warming

It refers to the gradual increase in the average temperature of earth atmosphere.
It is caused by the man made increase in the amount of greenhouse gases (CO2, CFCs, methane etc) in the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation.

Effects of global warming

♦ Rise in sea level due to melting of polar ice

♦ Increase in tropical storms

♦ Many species becomes endangered.

♦ Increase in the incidence of tropical diseases (like material, dengue etc)

Ozone depletion

The ozone layer is a region of earth stratosphere (a layer of atmosphere) that absorbs most of the sun ultraviolet radiation. It contains high concentration of ozone in relation to other parts of the atmosphere. It protects the planet from direct contact of ultraviolet rays.

Ozone depletion refers to the destruction of ozone in the ozone layer due to presence of high level of CFCs (Chlorofluocarbons) and bromine compounds in the atmosphere.

CFCs is used as cooling substance in AC and Refrigerators

Effects of ozone depletion

Depletion of ozone layer allows more ultra violet radiation to come o earth which causes various problems to living organism such as skin cancer, eye cancer and damage of immune system, hampers the growth of other living elements etc.

Challenges of Indian Environment

The priority issues of India’s environment are as follows:-

1. Deforestation or Degradation of land

2. Land Degradation

3. Soil erosion

4. Biodiversity loss

5. Air pollution

6. Management of fresh water

1. Deforestation or Degradation of land  

It refers to the removal of a forest or stand trees from land which is then converted into non-forest use.
In other words, it refers to cutting, clearing and removal of rainforest where land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
One of the main priority issue of environment is deforestation. Industries improves the quality of life by providing variety of goods and services but on other hand it disturbs the whole ecological system, as industrialization leads to urbanization and urbanization requires more amount of land which ultimately leads to deforestation. More and more amount of forest are for the purpose of development of cities and towns.

Chipko Movement/Chipko andolen – hug the tree

♦ The Chipko movement (in north) or appiko movement (in south) was a forest conservation movement in India.
♦ It was begun in 1970.
♦ In early 1970s, when the felling of trees by the authorities has started in sirsi district, 160 men, women and children hugged the trees. And forced the woodcutters to leave. 

2. Land Degradation

It refers to the decrease/decline in the productive capacity of the land.

In other words, it refers to a decline in the overall quality of soil, water and vegetation condition commonly caused by human activities.

Factors responsible for land degradation

♦ Deforestation

♦ Forest fires

♦ Improper crop rotation

♦ Indeterminate use of fertilizers and pesticides

♦ Improper planning and irrigation systems

♦ Non adoption of adequate soil conservation measures

3. Soil erosion

It refers to the removal of upper layer of the soil which contains the majority of nutrients which are essential for the growth of plant. Soil erosion is caused by strong winds and floods.
Plantation of more trees can stop the process of soil erosion as trees holds the layer of soil and protects them from winds and floods.

4. Biodiversity loss

Biodiversity refers to the variety of plant and animal life in the world or in a particular habitat.
Biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity wherein each species, whether small or large layer an important role.
Biodiversity loss refers to the extinction of species (plant or animal) worldwide, and also the local loss of species in a certain habitat.

Sustainable development

The development of our present generation without hampering the development of future generation is known as Sustainable development. The basic motive of sustainable development is to ensure that the present generation should gives a quality of life to the next generation, which is not less than what the present generation inherits.

Achieve sustainable development

In order to achieve sustainable development, following things are to be done

 Limiting population

In order to make the consumption of resources under the carrying capacity of the environment, the most important thing that is to be done is the control of growth rate of population.

♦ Careful use of renewable resources

Here, careful use refers to the pace of consumption in which the extraction of resources should not exceeds the regeneration.

♦ Substitution of non-renewable resources

In order to achieve sustainable development, non-renewable resources must be substitute with renewable resources. Moreover the rate of depletion of non- renewable resources must not exceeds the rate of creation of renewable resources.

♦ Pollution control

Here pollution does not only means air pollution, it includes all type of pollution (such as land, air, water, sound). In order to achieve sustainable development, the discharge of pollution should be limited to the absorption capacity of the environment.

♦ Input efficient technology

There is a need of such production technology which is input efficient and not input consuming i.e., more amount of production in same amount of resources input.

Strategies for sustainable development

Here is the list of various strategies that can be adopted for sustainable development

♦ Use of cleaner fuels

In place of smoke emitting fuels like coal and petroleum such fuels are to be taken into consideration which does not produce pollution, for example – Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), Compressed natural gas (CNG), gobargas in rural areas etc.

♦ Use of non-conventional sources of energy

The sources of energy which comes into existence in the recent past are known as non-conventional sources of energy.
In other words, it refers to the sources of energy which has been discovered just because of modern technology (used just from past few years)
For example – winds power, solar energy etc.

Use of such energy is beneficial for environment as well as for human beings as these sources of energy are termed as green sources i.e., they does ot pollute environment and can also be treated as the substitute of conventional sources of energy.

♦ Public means of transport

In order to reduce the consumption of petrol and to decrease the amount of air pollution public transport must be taken into consideration. As it reduces the amount of traffic and consumption of petrol which reduces sound and air pollution.

Foe example – metro in Delhi

♦ Traditional knowledge and practice

India is considered to be a environment friendly country. From ancient period, the people of India are very close to the environment, our agriculture system, transport, household have been environment friendly.
While shifthing from our tradition system to the western system we ignore the pride and environment friendly culture of our country.
There is a need to develop Indian culture in the heart of Indian public. Example – AYUSH (Ayurvedic, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy) treatment in India.

♦ Organic farming

It is a process of producing food naturally; under such farming the use of chemical fertilizers and high yielding variety of seeds is totally prohibited. Increase in the trend of organic farming reduces the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides which ultimately reduces the land degradation. Moreover, agriculture through natural process increases the qualtity of food.

♦ Management of waste

In order to control water pollution, proper management of industrial and household waste must be done. This waste should not enter into river and shall be systematically managed. Wastage of household can be recycled into compost and used as manure for organic farming.

♦ Mini-hydel plants

It refers to the plants which are used to generate electricity through the power of flowing water.
There are plenty of small rivers and streams in mountain regions, hydro power plants must be installed in those areas through which electricity can be generated. Moreover these plants are environment friendly and are capable of meeting local demands. 


♦ Biotic elements – Living beings – bird, plants and humans etc.

♦ Abiotic elements – non-living elements – air, water, land etc.

♦ Functions of environment

♦ Supplies resources

♦ Environment assimilates waste

♦ Sustains life

♦ Enhance the quality of life

♦ Carrying capacity of environment

♦ Absorption capacity of environment

♦ Environment crises

♦ Increase in population

♦ Industrial revolution

♦ Extraction of resources

♦ Affluent consumption

♦ Pollution

♦ Global warming

♦ Effects of global warming

♦ Ozone depletion

♦ Effects of ozone depletion

♦ Challenges of Indian Environment

♦ Deforestation or Degradation of land

♦ Land degradation

♦ Soil erosion

♦ Biodiversity loss

♦ Air pollution

♦ Management of fresh water

♦ Sustainable development

♦ Strategies for sustainable development

Environment Sustainable Development Notes for Class 11 Economics

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