Minerals and Energy Resources Class 10 Social Science Important Questions
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question. What are veins and lodes ?
Answer : In igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger ones are called lodes.
Question. What is Rat-hole minning ?
Answer : In India, most of the mineral, extraction is done by the tribal communities or individuals in the form of a long narrow tunnel known as Rat-hole minning.
Question. How does mining affect the health of miners ?
Answer : In mines, there is dust and noxious fumes which is inhaled by miners and make them vulnerable to pulmonary diseases.
Question. What is an ore ?
Answer : The term ore is used to describe an accumulation of any mineral mixed with other elements.
Question. Which state is the largest producer of manganese in India ?
Answer : Odisha is the largest producer of manganese ores in India. It accounted for one-third of the country’s total production of manganese in 2000-2001.
Short Answer Type Questions
Question. “India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world. Yet we are not able to perform to our full potential.” Suggest and explain any three measures to get full potential.
Answer : India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world. Yet we are not able to perform to our full potential. Following measures can be suggested to get full potential: (i) Development of infrastructures: Iron ore mines are mostly located in backward regions of India for example Jharkhand, odisha. With the development of infrastructure we can exhaust it better.
(ii) Providing Training: Training should be provided to mines workers as well as steel plant worker to make them more productive.
(iii) Use of modern equipments: modern equipments should be used to mine iron-ore. Also modern machines should be used in steel plants and their regular repair should be done.
(iv) Regular supply of Energy: Regular electricity should be supplied to those steel plants which are far away from energy sources.
Question. “Minerals are unevenly distributed in India.” Support the statement with examples.
Answer : India is very rich in minerals. Lots of metallic and non metallic mineral resources can be found in India. However, these minerals are not evenly distributed all over the nation. The reason for this uneven distribution is variation in the geographical conditions, process and time involved in the formation of rocks.
(i) The majority of coal reserves, metallic minerals, mica and many other non-metallic minerals are diverse in nature.
(ii) Sedimentary rocks in Gujarat and Assam have petroleum deposits.
(iii) The alluvial plains of North India are mostly devoid of mineral resources.
Question. How we have to adopt a cautious approach for the judicious use of our limited energy resource ? Explain.
Answer : India is one of the least energy efficient countries in the world. One has to adopt a cautious approach for the judicious use of limited energy resources. There is an urgent need to develop a sustainable path of energy development. Promotion of energy conservation and increased use of renewable energy sources are the twin planks of sustainable energy. As repsonsible citizens one should try to:
(i) Use the public transport system or use shared rides instead of individual vehicles,
(ii) Switch off electricity or any electronic gadgets when not in use,
(iii) Use of power-saving devices and it should be encouraged
(iv) Use of non-conventional sources of energy should be encouraged.
Question. ‘‘Crude oil reserves are limited all over the world. If people continue to extract it at the present rate, the reserves would last only 35 – 40 years more“ Explain any three ways to solve this problem.
Answer : Crude oil is a non- renewable resource of energy. It takes millions of years for the formation of this fuel, because of which, it must be used judiciously. This type of fuel is being used faster than they are being produced. This causes depletion and scarcity of crude oil. Steps which can be taken to conserve this non-renewable source of energy are:
(i) Use of public transport like buses and trains instead of self-owned vehicles will help to conserve petroleum. Car pooling will reduce the consumption of this fuel and thus scacity will be dealt better with.
(ii) Use of cycles wherever possible instead of using motorbike or car.
(iii) Waxing floors with beeswax instead of petroleum based commercial wax can also be beneficial.
Question. Why it is not preferred to use firewood and cattle dung as energy resource ?
Answer : The energy resources can be classified into two types : Conventional sources and Non-Conventional sources. Conventional sources of energy like firewood and cattle dung cake are most common in rural India. According to one estimate, more than 70 per cent energy requirement in rural households is met by these two. Continuation of these is increasingly becoming difficult due to decreasing forest area. At the same time, usage of dunk cake is also discouraged as it consumes the most valuable manure, which could be used in agriculture.
Long Answer Type Questions
Question. What are minerals ? How are minerals classified ? Explain briefly.
Answer : Minerals are homogenous naturally occurring substances with a definable internal structure. Minerals are found in varied forms in nature, ranging from the hardest diamond to the softest talc. Minerals are classified as : MINERALS Metallic Non-Metallic Energy Minerals Ferrous Non-Ferrous Precious
(i) Metallic minerals :
(a) Ferrous minerals which contain iron. Examples of such minerals are iron ore, manganese, nickel, cobalt, etc.
(b) Non-ferrous minerals which do not contain iron contents. Examples of such minerals are copper, lead, tin, bauxite, etc.
(c) Precious minerals which have high economic value. Examples of precious minerals are gold, silver and platinum.
(ii) Non-metallic minerals : Examples of non-metallic minerals are mica, salt, potash, sulphur, granite, limestone, marble, sandstone, etc.
(iii) Energy minerals : These minerals provide energy. Examples of energy minerals are coal, petroleum and natural gas.
Question. What is Geothermal energy ?
Answer : Geothermal energy refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interior of the earth. Geothermal energy exists because; the earth grows progressively hotter with increasing depth. Where the geothermal gradient is high, high temperatures are found at shallow depths. Groundwater in such areas absorbs heat from the rocks and become hot. It is so hot that when it rises to the earth’s surface, it turns into steam. This steam is used to drive turbines and generate electricity. There are several hundred hot springs in India, which could be used to generate electricity. Two experimental projects have been set up in India to harness geothermal energy. One is located in the Parvati valley near Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh and the other is located in the Puga valley, Ladakh.