Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Notes for Class 12 Biology
Following are Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Notes for Class 12 Biology. These revision notes have been prepared by expert teachers of Class 12 Biology as per the latest NCERT, CBSE, KVS books released for the current academic year. Students should go through Chater 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production concepts and notes as these will help you to revise all important topics and help you to score more marks. We have provided Class 12 Biology notes for all chapters in your book. You can access it all free and download Pdf.
Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Notes Class 12 Biology
Important Questions Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Class 12 Biology
Short Answer Questions
Question. Biofortification is the most practical means to improve public health. Justify the statement with examples.
Answer : Biofortification is the plant breeding programme designed to increase Vitamins, minerals, higher proteins and healthier fat content in crops. This programme improves the quality of food products. It is required to prevent hidden hunger. Some of the examples of fortified crops are:
(i) New hybrid of maize : has twice the amount of amino acid lysine and tryptophan.
(ii) Wheat : Atlas 66, having a high protein content.
(iii) Rice : 5 times iron than the normal amount. IARI Delhi has released several crops which are rich in vitamins and minerals.
Consumption of such biofortified food will improve the public health.
Question. Name two fungal diseases of Crop plants.
Answer : Brown rust of wheat, Smut of wheat, red rot of Sugar cane, Late blight of potato.
Question. Explain the process of Somatic hybridisation.
Answer : (i) Isolation of protoplast of Tomato cell and Potato cell.
(ii) Somatic hybridisation.
(iv) Somatic hybrid
(i) Somaclonal variations can be created
(ii) Lines or varieties/species of plants which can not be sexually hybridised, they can be hybridised.
Question. Which product of Apiculture is used in cosmetics and polishes?
Answer : Beewax
Question. What is mutation? Explain the significance of mutation in plant breeding. Give an example of a disease resistant variety of cultivated plant induced by mutation.
Answer : Mutation : Sudden inheritable change in the characters of an organism due to change in the sequence of bases in the gene(s). Mutation results in a new
character or trait, not found in the parental type. It can also be induced by using mutagens like gamma radiations. Such plant materials are used as such or used for breeding new
Question. Semi-dwar f varieties of a crop plant were derived from IR-8. Name that crop.
Answer : Paddy crop (rice)
Question. A new breed of sheep was developed in Punjab by crossing two different breeds of Sheep.
Name the two breeds which were crossed and the new breed developed.
Answer : By crossing Bikaneri ewes and Marino rams, the new breed Hisardale was developed.
Question. Why is inbreeding necessary in animal husbandry?
Answer : Inbreeding increases homozygosity
Question. Study the table given below and fill in the blanks marked A, B, C and D
Answer : A. Leaf and Stripe rust,hillbunt. B. Pusa swarnim (Karanrai). C.Cowpea D. PusaSadabahar.
Question. Does apiculture offer multiple advantages to farmers? List its advantages, if it is located near a place of commercial flower cultivation. Name the most common species of bee which is reared in India.
Answer : Apiculture or Bee-Keeping is the maintenance of hives of honeybees for the production of honey. Apiculture is beneficial for farmers in many ways. Honey bee also produces bee wax which is used in industries, such as in preparation of cosmetics and polishes of various kinds. If Bee keeping is practiced in any area the commercial flowers are cultivated, it
will be beneficial in the following ways.
(i) Bees are pollinators of many crop species including flowering crops such as sunflower.
(ii) It improves the honey yield, because honeybees collect the nectar from flowers for making honey.
Apis indica is the most common species which is reared in India
Question. Why are proteins synthesized from Spirulina called Single celled Proteins? What is the significance of such a protein?
Answer : The protein rich food produced by microbes is called as single celled protein (SCP) Spirulina is a microorganism which has more protein.
It is a quick method of protein production because the growth rate of microbes is enormous. Hence, it provides a protein rich diet for human beings
Question. To which product, following products are related(a)Blue revolution(b)white revolution(c) Green revolution
Answer : (a) Fish production (b) Milk production (c) Crop production
Question. Differentiate between inbreeding and out breeding in animals.
Answer : When breeding is between animals of the same breed, it is called inbreeding, while cross between different breeds is called out breeding
Question. What is somatic hybridisation? Describe the various steps in producing somatic hybrids from protoplasts. Mention any two uses of somatic hybridisation.
Answer : Somatic Hybridisation : The process of fusing protoplasts of Somatic cells of different varieties or species of plants to produce a hybrid.
(i) Removal of cell wall of fusing cells by digestion with a combination of pectinase and cellulase to form protoplasts.
(ii) Fusion between protoplasts of selected parents is induced by the use of polyethylene glycol(PEG).
(iii) The resulted product is cultured on a suitable medium to regenerate cell walls.
(iv) The cells obtained begin to divide to produce plantlets called somatic hybrids.
Question. What is micropropagation? Why are plants produce by this technique called somaclones?
Name any two food plants which are produced on commercial scale using this method.
Answer : *The method of producing many plants through tissue culture is called micropropagation.
*The plants produced through micro propagation will be genetically identical to the original plant from which they were grown, hence are called soma clones.
*Tomato, banana, apple are produced on commercial scale using this method
Question. How can we improve the success rate of fertilisation during artificial insemination in animal husbandry programmes?
Answer : The Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer (MOET) technology can improve the success rate of fertilisation. In the procedure, a cow is given hormonal treatment (FSH), so that more than one ova/eggs (6-8) are produced per cycle. After mating or artificial insemination the embryos at 8-32 celled stage, are transferred to different surrogate mother cows. This technology has been successfully used for cattle sheep, rabbit, mares and buffaloes.
Question. Write two qualities of Saccharum officinarum (Sugarcane) grown in South India.
Answer : Thicker stem and higher sugar content
Question. What is meant by germplasm Collection? Describe its significance in plant breeding programmes.
Answer : The entire collection having all the diverse alleles for all genes of crop plant is called germ plasm collection. In plant breeding programmes, the germplasm provides the entire set of genes and alleles, and the characteristics which they express. The plant breeders select the most favourable characters of a particular gene and manipulate it and transfer it to a desirable parent.