The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Social Science Important Questions
Please refer to The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Social Science Important Questions with answers below. These solved questions for Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe in NCERT Book for Class 10 Social Science have been prepared based on the latest syllabus and examination guidelines issued by CBSE, NCERT, and KVS. Students should learn these solved problems properly as these will help them to get better marks in your class tests and examinations. You will also be able to understand how to write answers properly. Revise these questions and answers regularly. We have provided Notes for Class 10 Social Science for all chapters in your textbooks.
Important Questions Class 10 Social Science Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe
All The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Class 10 Social Science Important Questions provided below have been prepared by expert teachers of Standard 10 Social Science. Please learn them and let us know if you have any questions.
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question. Define the term liberalisation ?
Answer : The term ‘liberalisation’ means the freeing of economy from direct and indirect controls of government.
Question. Explain the aim to form ‘Zollverein’, a Customs Union, in 1834 in Germany.
Answer : Zollverein was a customs union formed in 1834 at the initiative of Prussia. The union abolished tariff barriers and internal custom dues and was willing to establish free trade with neighbouring states. It reduced the number of currencies from thirty to two. Most German states joined the Zollverein.
Question. Which major issue was criticised against by the liberal nationalists ?
Answer : The major issue that was refuted by the liberal nationalists was the censorship laws of controlling the state.
Question. What was the meaning of liberalism in early nineteenth century in Europe ?
Answer : In early nineteenth century, liberalism was the concept of government by consent. It stressed upon the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament.
Nineteenth-century liberals also stressed the inviolability of private property.
Question. What was the most serious source of nationalist tension that evolved after 1871 in Europe ?
Answer : The most significant source of nationalist tension was the ‘Balkan tension’ that surfaced in Europe after 1871.
Question. What was the basic philosophy of the conservatives ?
Answer : The fundamental philosophy of the conservatives was to emphasise the significance of traditions and established institutions and customs.
Question. What was the strong demand of the emerging middle classes in Europe during nineteenth century ?
Answer : Freedom of markets and the abolition of state-imposed restrictions on the movement of goods and capital were the main demand of the emerging middle classes in Europe during nineteenth century.
Question. Who was Johann Gottfried Herder?
Answer : Johann Gottfried Herder was a German philosopher, poet and literary critic who claimed that real German culture was to be discovered among the common people (das volk).
Question. In which event of history, we observe the clear expression of nationalism?
Answer : We observe the clear expression of nationalism in the event French Revolution of 1789.
Question. During the middle of the 19th century, Italy was divided into how many states?
Answer : Italy was divided into seven states during the middle of the 19th century.
Question. Name the painting prepared by Frederic Sorrieu in 1848.
Answer : The painting prepared by Frederic Sorrieu in 1848 was ‘The Dream of Worldwide Democratic and Social Republics-The Pact between Nations’.
Question. What was the major issue taken up by the liberal nationalists?
Answer : The Freedom of Press was one of the foremost issues addressed by the liberal nationalists
Question. Which type of government was functioning in France before the revolution of 1789?
Answer : The Monarchical type of government was functioning in France before the revolution of 1789.
Question. What was the main aim of the French revolutionaries?
Answer : The main aim of the French revolutionaries was to make a France a nation and liberate the people by creating the feeling of a collective identity.
Question. What was the main objective of the Congress of Vienna of 1815 ?
Answer : The main objective of the Congress of Vienna was to establish a new balance of power in Europe, which would remove all the vestiges of imperialism of Napoleon era.
Question. Which areas formed the ‘Balkans’ ?
Answer : The Balkans comprised an area of topographical and ethnic vagaries, including modern day— Romania, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro.
Short Answer Type Questions
Question. How had the female figures become the allegory of nations during nineteenth century in Europe ?
Answer : As far as nationalism is concerned, personification of nation is highly indispensable. Countries were often projected as female to give a shape to an abstract feeling.
The female figures dispersed strong message through the exhibition of cultural icons such as the statue of liberty. Thus, female figure became an allegory of the nations. For example, in France, Marianne emerged as the embodiment of the country.
Question. Why did nationalism emerge in the Balkans ?
Answer : Ethnic vagaries spawned a feeling of nationalism in the Balkans. The Ottoman Empire started to disintegrate.
The Balkans became the cauldron of repressed anger and tensions. They used history to prove that their area had once been independent. As a matter of fact, mutual jealousies augmented tension in the region.
Question. Write a short note on Giuseppe Mazzini.
Answer : Giuseppe Mazzini was a young revolutionary of Italy who played a crucial role in propagating the notion of a united Italian state. Mazzini believed that god considered nations to be the natural units of mankind.
During that time, Italy was dismembered into a number of small states and kingdoms. During the 1830s,Mazzini aimed to topple varied monarchies and began a revolution to unify Italy. Mazzini also established two secret organisations, named Young Italy and Young Europe. However, the revolution faced discomfiture and Mazzini was sent into exile. Nevertheless, his notions later encouraged Cavour to unify Italy in the second half of the nineteenth century.
Question. How is the history of nationalism in Britain different from the rest of Europe ?
In earlier times, in Britain, the ethnic stocks comprised the English, the Welsh and the Irish. These ethnic groups had their inherent political tradition and culture. In 1688, the English parliament had wielded power from the monarchy. Through the Act of Union (1707), Scotland was absorbed into the fold of England.
In 1801, Ireland was forcibly integrated into the ambit of the United Kingdom. The symbols of New Britain, the British flags, the National Anthem and the English language played important roles in shaping the history of nationalism of Britain and made it different from the rest of Europe.
Question. Compare the positions on the question of women’s rights voiced by the three writers (Carl Welcker, Louis Otto-Peters and an anonymous reader) cited above.
What do they reveal about liberal ideology ?
Answer : The three writers Carl Welcker, Louis Otto-Peters and an anonymous reader, manifested three different perspectives about the women’s rights. These are enumerated as follows :
(i) The first writer Carl Welcker was a liberal political thinker. He was vocal about the functions of the two sexes. He believed that equality between the sexes would only spawn harmony.
(ii) The second writer, Louis Otto-Peters believed that women should be given equal rights.
(iii) The third writer (an anonymous reader) favoured the question of women’s rights. By citing a comparative study, he discussed the political rights of both men and women.
(iv) All three writers claimed that there were massive stratifications in the liberal ideology. They were divided on the question of women’s rights.
Question. Write a short note on Count Camillo de Cavour.
Answer : Out of the seven Italian states, only Sardinia-Piedmont was administered by an Italian princely house. The revolutionary upsurge of 1831 and 1848 failed to unite Italy. Subsequently, the mantle of unifying Italy fell upon the Italian state. King Victor Emmanuel II was its monarch and Count Cavour was its Chief Minister.
Cavour organised the movement to unite the separate states of Italy. He has a powerful coalition with France that helped him to crush the Austrian forces in 1859, leading to the unification of Italy.
Question. Compare the views of liberals and conservatives.
Answer : The comparison of liberal and conservative views are as follows:
Question. “The decade of 1830 had brought great economic hardship in Europe.” Support the statement with arguments.
Answer : The 1830s were years of great economic hardship in Europe.
i. Enormous increase in population: The first half of the nineteenth century saw an enormous increase in population all over Europe.
ii. Unemployment and Migration: In most countries, there were more job seekers than employment. Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.
iii. Stiff competition from imports: Small producers in towns were often faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine made goods from England, where industrialisation was more advanced than on the continent.
iv. Widespread pauperism: The rise of food prices or a year of bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country.
Question. Explain any three provisions of the Napoleon Civil Code, 1804.
Answer : The Napoleon Civil Code, 1804, generally known as the Napoleonic Code, has the following provisions:
i. Simplified administration: Napoleon simplified the administrative divisions, abolished feudal system and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
ii. No birth-based privileges: Napoleon abolished all privileges based on birth and established equality before the law. He also secured the right to property.
iii. Free trade & no guild restrictions: The uniform laws, standardised measurements and currencies boosted free trade. Moreover, removal of guild restrictions that hindered growth of manufacturing was also scrapped by Napoleon.
iv. Improvement of infrastructure: Transport and communication system was improved.
Question. Name the female allegory who represents France. Describe her main characteristics.
Answer : Marianne was a female allegory who represented France.
Her characteristics are as follows:
i. It represented liberty, justice, and the republic.
ii. These were the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade.
iii. The statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind people of the national symbol of unity.
iv. Her images were marked on coins and stamps of 1850.
v. This figure of ‘Marianne’ gave the abstract idea of the nation a concrete form which became an allegory of the nation also.
Question. How did Nationalism develop through culture in Europe? Explain.
Answer : Nationalism developed through culture in Europe:
i. Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation. Art, music, literature and drama helped to express, shape and strengthen nationalist sentiments.
ii. The cultural movement of Romanticism aimed at developing a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets generally focussed on emotions, intuition and mystical feelings and criticized the glorification of reason and
iii. Romantics like the German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder held the view that true German culture could be discovered only among the common people, the Das Volk. The true spirit of a nation was popularised through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances.
iv. The emphasis on vernacular language and the collection of local folklore were
used to carry the modern nationalist message to large audiences who were mostly illiterates.
Question. Explain the role of Giuseppe Mazzini in the unification of Italy.
Answer : Role of Mazzini in the unification of Italy was as follows:
i. Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini was born in Genoa in 1807.
ii. He became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari.
iii. At the age of 24, he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria.
iv. He became a member of various secret societies such as Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne.
v. He wanted unification with a wider alliance of nations.
vi. He frightened conservatives through the opposition of monarchy and vision of democratic republics.
vii. He favoured war for the unification of Italy.
viii. He wanted economic development and political dominance.
Question. Analyse the measures and practices introduced by the French revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
Answer : The French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that created a
sense of collective identity among the French people:
i. They introduced the ideas of La Patrie (the fatherland) and Le Citoyen (the citizen) emphasizing the concept of a united community enjoying equal rights under a Constitution.
ii. They choose a new French flag, the tricolour, to replace the Royal Standard.
iii. Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
iv. New hymns were composed and martyrs commemorated all in the name of the nation.
v. A centralised system of administration was introduced, uniform laws were made for all citizens.
vi. French language was spoken and written and became a common language in Paris.
Question. What were the impacts of Treaty of Vienna on European people?
Answer : Representatives of the European power, Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria signed treaty of Vienna in 1815. Following were its impact on the European people:
i. Deposed Bourbon dynasty was restored to power. Future expansion of French was prevented.
ii. Prussia was given new important territories on its Western frontier, while Austria was given control of the Northern Italy.
iii. In the east, Russia was given part of Poland while Prussia was given a portion of Saxony.
iv. The treaty slowed down the growth of nationalism. There was an effort to restore Monarchies that had been overthrown by Napoleon and to create a new conservative order in Europe.
Question. Explain any four reasons how the initial enthusiasm of the people of France soon turned to hostility after Napoleon’s takeover of France.
Answer : At the very beginning, the French Armies were welcomed as harbingers of liberty and fraternity. But the initial enthusiasm soon gave way to hostility. This is because people soon understood that the new administrative arrangements did not go hand in hand with political freedom.
The four factors which outweighed the advantages of the administrative changes are:
i. Taxation on people at an increased rate.
ii. Strict censoring of printing media and books.
iii. Conscription on a forced basis into the French Armies to satisfy its imperialist ambition.
iv. Restriction on individual Freedom.
Question. “Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France but in the administrative field, he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.” Analyse the statement with arguments.
Answer : Napoleon had destroyed democracy in France but in the administrative field, he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient. Revolutionary principles of administration by Napoleon are as follows:
i. The Napoleonic Code of 1804 removed privileges by birth. Everyone was equal before the law and got the right to property. The code was used in regions under French control.
ii. Simplified administrative divisions.
iii. Feudal system was abolished and freed peasants from serfdom and manorial dues.
iv. Guild restrictions were removed in towns. Artisan, peasants, businessmen, and workers found new freedom for doing their work.
v. Uniform laws, standardized weights, and measures along with a common currency made exchange and movement of goods far easier.
vi. Transport and communication systems were improved.
Question. Outline the features of Vienna Treaty.
Answer : The treaty of Vienna was drawn up in 1815 at Vienna, Austria. For this treaty the representatives of European Powers-Russia, Britain, Prussia and Austria who had collectively defeated Napoleon, met at Vienna. The meeting was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich. The objective of Vienna Congress was undoing most of the changes that had come about in the Europe during the Napoleonic War.
Question. Write a short note on Frankfurt Parliament.
Answer : In 1848, the German middle class aimed to vote for an overarching German Assembly and hence came to Frankfurt. The National assembly decided that the German nation would form a monarchical nation regulated by the Parliament, it offered these terms to the Prussian king. The king however, refuted the proposal and joined other monarchs to oppose the elected assembly. The middle class monopolised the Parliament which resisted the demands of the workers and artisans. Thus the middle class lost their mass support. In the last, the monarchy and the military formed a nexus with the aristocracy and triumphed over the liberal nationalist middle class. Therefore, the Frankfurt Parliament is popular in history as a failed venture of liberalism which resulted in the triumph of the monarchy.
Question. Complete the following table.
Long Answer Type Questions
Question. “Nationalism no longer retained its idealistic liberal democratic sentiment by the last quarter of the nineteenth century in Europe,” Analyse the statement with examples.
Nationalism no longer retained its idealistic liberaldemocratic sentiment by the last quarter of the nineteenth century in Europe, but became a narrow creed with limited ends. During this period nationalist groups became increasingly intolerant of each other and ever ready to go to war. The major European powers, in turn, manipulated the nationalist aspirations
of the subject peoples in Europe to further their own imperialist aims. This was seen in the case of Balkan region. The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs. A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans
together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive. The Balkan peoples based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality and used history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers. As the different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence, the Balkan area became a n area of intense conflict. The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and each hoped to gain more territory at the expense of the others. During this period, there wasintense rivalry among the European powers over trade and colonies as well as naval and military might. Each power – Russia, Germany, England, Austro-Hungary – was keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans, and extending its own control over the area. This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.
Question. Through a focus on any two countries, explain how nations developed over the nineteenth century.
Answer : In this segment, we will focus on the development of the German and Italian nation states in the nineteenth century.
(i) Political fragmentation : In the middle of the nineteenth century, the present day nations of Germany and Italy were dismembered into separate regions and kingdoms ruled by different princely houses.
(ii) Revolutionary uprisings : Nineteenth-century Europe was characterised by both popular insurgencies of the masses and revolutions spearheaded by the educated, liberal middle classes. In response to the opposition from the aristocracy and military, it was compelled to cease.
(iii) Italian region : In the Italian region, during the 1830s, revolutionaries like Giuseppe Mazzini sought to establish a unitary Italian Republic. However, the revolutionary uprisings of 1831 and 1848 failed to unite Italy.
(iv) Unification based on army : After the failure of the revolutions, the process of German and Italian unification was continued by the aristocracy and the army. Germany was united by the Prussian chief minister Otto Von Bismarck with the assistance of the Prussian army and bureaucracy. The German nation was established in 1871.
(v) The Italian state of Sardinia : Piedmont played a role in the unification of italy like their German counterparts. Count Camillo de Cavour (the Chief Minister) led the movement to unite the separate states of nineteenth-century Italy with the help of the army and formed a nexus with France. The regions annexed by Giuseppe Garibaldi and his Red Shirts joined the northern regions and formed a united Italy. The Italian nation was thus formed in 1861. The Papal States joined in 1870.
Question. Describe any five measures introduced by the French Revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
Answer : From the very beginning, the French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that could create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.
(i) The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasised the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
(ii) A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard.
(iii) The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
(iv) A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory. Internal cutoms duties were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted.
(v) Regional dialects were discouraged and French as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.