Biotechnology: and its Application Notes for Class 12 Biology
Following are Biotechnology: and its Application Notes for Class 12 Biology. These revision notes have been prepared by expert teachers of Class 12 Biology as per the latest NCERT, CBSE, KVS books released for the current academic year. Students should go through Chater 1 Biotechnology: and its Application concepts and notes as these will help you to revise all important topics and help you to score more marks. We have provided Class 12 Biology notes for all chapters in your book. You can access it all free and download Pdf.
Chapter 12 Biotechnology: and its Application Notes Class 12 Biology
Important Questions Biotechnology: and its Application Class 12 Biology
Question. Insulin produced earlier had problems. It has been overcome with rDNA technology. Explain. Why is Insulin not administered orally?
Answer : Obtained from animals caused allergic reactions, Insulin produced using rDNA did not cause allergic reactions as animal proteins were not used here ,Insulin being a protein gets digested if taken orally.
Question. What is GEAC .State its function?
Answer : Genetic Engineering Approval Committee, ensure safety and validity of experiments
Question. How has the Bt toxin been effective against insects?
Answer : The larva ingests the leaves of Bt cotton containing the toxin, the toxin is activated in the gut of the insect by enzymes, which solubilize the toxin,the toxin binds to the lining of epithelial cells create pores cause swelling and death of the insect
(i) cause for tobacco reduction due to infection by parasitise, nematode Meloidegyne incogntia, in roots.
Question. How transgenic animals are made useful in chemical safety testing and studying diseases?
Answer : Made sensitive to chemicals, making them disease models for studying
Question. Give a schematic representation of the transformation of a pro- insulin to insulin.
Question. How is Biotechnology used to produce Bt cotton? Explain
Answer : Toxins of Bacillus introduced into cotton using r DNA, BT Toxin gene has been cloned from bacteria , and expressed in cotton.
Question. How is use of rDNA better than using traditional methods of agriculture?
Answer : Use of fertilizers ,pesticides minimized, only desirable traits can be selected for breeding, create tailor made plants for industries
Question. What merits do the products made using Biotechnology have? Give an example of one such product used in treatment.
Answer : No allergic reactions(Could cause allergy if made using other animals), antitrypsin in treatment of emphysema
Question. Name four application of biotechnology
Answer : (I) therapy,(ii) Diagnostics,(iii) Genetically modified crop in agriculture,(iv)Biofortified food,(transgenic animals)
Question. PCR is a powerful diagnostic technique. Justify.
Answer : Diagnosis at the time when symptoms are not shown(early stage )of AIDS /Cancer
Question. Mention two applications of biotechnology in medicine with examples
Answer : Insulin production ,treatment of genetic disorders with gene therapy as in ADA deficiency
Question. What problem was faced in production of insulin by rDNA technology and how was it resolved
Answer : To assemble mature insulin from Proinsulin, separate production of A and B chains of E Coli peptide and combined
Question. GMO’s have been useful to mankind. List about five useful GMO’s created so far. and how they have been useful
Answer : Crops tolerant to a biotic stress, reduced reliance on chemicals, reduced post harvest loss, enhanced nutritional value, physiologicsl models, huam lactalbumin producing cow
Question. “Most of the industrialised nations are rich financially but poor in biodiversity and traditional knowledge.”Justify this statement with an example.
Answer : (i)ethical issues
(iii) e.g basmati an Indian variety, patent obtained by a US company
(iv) awareness of Biopiracy and need for Biopatent of the additional resources and wisdom
Question. What are the three critical research areas of Biotechnology?
Answer : Providing the best catalyst in the form of a microbe/enzyme, creating optimal conditions for their action, downstream processing technologies
Question. Name the diagnostic test for AIDS when the concentration of HIV is (a) low (b)high.
Answer : PCR,ELISA
Question. How can biotechnology help in increasing the yield of tobacco?
Answer : RNA interference, Agro bacterium as vectors, formation of complementary RNA double strand specific to nematode DNA, silencing of mRNA of nematode,makes tobacco pest resistant.
Question. State the principle used in ELISA?
Answer : Antigen-antibody interaction
Question. Name a natural genetic engineer and state how it has been used to create pest resistant tobacco. .
Answer : Agro bacterium tumifaciens, By RNA interference, and stopping of nematode protein production, agro bacterium as vectors to introduce genes into tobacco plants which results in ,formation of complementary RNA double strand specific to nematode DNA, silencing of mRNA of nematode, makes tobacco pest resistant
Question. How would you have used Biotechnology if you had the complete technology in Your hands?
Answer : Any five applications of the students choice-values of societal needs problem awareness, selflessness reflected in the answers.
Question. Gene therapy is a better alternative to the other measures taken for ADA deficiency. Why is it a better alternative? What were the other methods used earlier? How can it be done?
Answer : Permanent cure ,Bone marrow transplantation and enzyme replacement therapy, introducing cDNA of a functional ADA using retrovirus into the stem cells/early embryonic stages.