Class 12 VBQs Biology Biodiversity and Conservation
Very Short Answer Type Questions
Question. Write the importance of cryopreservation in conservation of biodiversity.
Answer : Gametes of threatened species / seeds of commercially important strains can be preserved, in viable and fertile condition / for long periods.
Detailed Answer :
Gametes of threatened species can be preserved in viable and fertile condition for long periods using cryopreservation techniques, eggs can be fertilised in-vitro, and plants can be propagated using tissue culture methods.
Short Answer Type Questions
Question. Why are sacred groves highly protected ?
Answer : Sacred groves are highly protected because of religious and cultural traditions, refugees for large number of rare and threatened plants, ecologically unique and biodiversity rich regions.
Detailed Answer :
The sacred groves are forest fragments which are regenerated around places of worship. They are highly protected by certain communities because they are of religious importance to the communities.
They have a significant role in in-situ conservation.
Question. Differentiate between in-situ and ex-situ approaches of conservation of biodiversity.
Answer : in-situ
Protection of endangered species of plants and animals by protecting the natural habitat/ecosysem.
ex-situ-Protection of endangered species by removing themfrom the natural habitat and placing under special care.
Question. Why should biodiversity be conserved ? Explain giving three reasons.
Answer : Narrowly utilitarian : Humans derive direct economic benefits from nature (or explained with example).
Broadly utilitarian : Provides many ecosystem services such as provide oxygen (through photosynthesis), prevents pollution, provides aesthetic pleasure.
Ethical : We share this planet with millions of other organisms and every species has intrinsic value and it is our moral duty to conserve them and pass on the legacy to future generation.
Question. Many plant and animal species are on the verge of their extinction because of loss of forest land by indiscriminate use by the humans. As biology student what method would you suggest along with its advantages that can protect such threatened species from getting extinct ?
Answer : As a biology student, I would suggest the following method that can protect these threatened species from becoming extinct:
Ex situ conservation : The threatened species of plants and animals are taken out of their habitats and are kept in special setting such as zoological parks, botanical gardens and wildlife sanctuaries.
In the present scenario, the gametes of endangered species can be preserved by methods like cryopreservation and can be fertilised in vitro followed by propagation through tissue culture methods. Similarly, seeds can be preserved in seed banks. This type of conservation method is an off-site conservation method.
Question. (i) Why is there a need to conserve biodiversity ?
(ii) Name and explain any two ways that are responsible for the loss of biodiversity.
Answer : (i) (a) To continue to get the products of human consumption.
(b) Plays a major role in many ecosystem services that nature provides and that is invaluable.
(c) Moral duty to pass on biological legacy in good order to future generations.
(ii) (a) Habitat loss and fragmentation : large habitats when broken lead to loss of habitat
for animals needing large territories (are badly affected) – population decline.
(b) Over exploitation : leading to extinction of many, especially commercially important species.
(c) Alien species invasion : alien species when introduced may turn invasive causing decline
and extinction of indigenous species // explain with an example.
(d) Co-extinction : when one species become extinct, any other organism intimately associated also becomes extinct.
Question. Explain the ‘Ex-situ conservation’ of Biodiversity.
How is the in-situ conservation different from it ?
Answer : Ex-situ – Threatened animals and plants are taken out from their natural habitat and placed in special settings where they can be protected and given special care , by keeping the gametes of threatened species preserved in viable and fertile condition for long time Zoological parks / botanical gardens / wildlife safari parks / cryopreservation / eggs can be fertilised in vitro / tissue culture method / seed banks (Any correct example explained)
In-situ conservation: Organisms are given protection in their natural habitat in which biodiversity is protected at all levels