Federalism Notes for Class 10 Social Science
Following are Federalism Notes for Class 10 Social Science. These revision notes have been prepared by expert teachers of Class 10 Social Science as per the latest NCERT, CBSE, KVS books released for the current academic year. Students should go through Chapter 2 Federalism concepts and notes as these will help you to revise all important topics and help you to score more marks. We have provided Class 10 Social Science notes for all chapters in your book. You can access it all free and download Pdf.
Chapter 2 Federalism Notes Class 10 Social Science
3 Fold Distribution of Legislative Powers
Union List:- Defence, Foreign Affairs, banking, currency and so on.
State List:- Police, Trade, Commerce, Agriculture and so on.
Concurrent List:- Education, forest, trade union, marriage and so on.
The Local Government Structure or Village Level.
Gram Panchyat- Each village or group of village in some states has a gram Panchayat. This is a council consisitng of several members often called Panch and a president or sarpanch. They are directly
elected by the adult population of ward.
Panchayat Samiti / Block Samiti:- A few Gram Panchayat are grouped together to form what is usually called a Panchayat or Block or Mandat Samiti the member of this represintaitive body are elected by all the panchayat memebrs in that area.
Zila Parishad:- All the Panchayat Samiti and Mandals in a district together constitute the Zila Parishad. Most of the mebers of Zila Parishad are elected.
Zila Parishad:- Members of loksabha + MLA’s of that district & some other officials of other district level. Chairperson is the political head of Zila Parishad
Memorable Facts :-
1. Horizontal distribution of power – Distribution of power among different organs of government such as the legislature, executive and judiciary.
2. Vertical distribution of power – Distribution of power among government at different levels such as central government, Provincial Government, Local Government etc.
3. System of check and balance – The system in which judges are appointed by the executive but they can check the functioning of executive or lawsmade by the legislators.
4. Federalism: A system of government in which the power is divided between central authority and its various constituent units.
5. In a federal system, the jurisdiction of the government of each level is clearly mentioned in the constitution.
6. The fundamental provisions of the constitution cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of government in federalism.
7. The objectives of federalism are not only to safeguard and promote unity of the country but also accommodate regional diversity.
8. Coming together federations – When independent states come together on their own to form a bigger unit Ex- USA, Australia, Switzerland etc.
9. Holding together federation – When a large country divides its power between the constituent states and the national government Ex- India, Spain, Belgium etc.
10. Jurisdiction – The area over which someone has legal authority.
11. In India, the legislative powers have been divided into three lists.
* Union List – Subjects of national importance ex. foreign affairs banking, currency etc.
* State List – Subjects of state and local importance ex. – Police, trade, agriculture.
* Concurrent List – Subjects of common interests of both the union Govt as well as the state Govt.
12. Residuary Subjects – The subjects which are not mentioned in Union, state or concurrent list come under the power of federal or union govt. and are called residuary subjects.
13. Coalition Government – When two or more political parties come together to form a government.
14. Hindi is the mother tongue of about 40% of Indians.
15. Scheduled Languages : Such languages that come under eighth schedule of the Indian constitution.
16. In 1992, a major step towards decentralisation was taken by making the third-tier of democracy powerful and effective.
Very short Answer type Questions
Question. Name the institutions of local government work in urban areas.
Ans. Municipalities and Municipal corporation.
Question. Who plays an important role in overseeing the implementation of constitutional provisions and procedures ?
Question. Who can make laws relating to the subjects mentioned in the concurrent list ?
Ans. Both Union Govt. and State Govt.
Question. How ‘Panchayat Samiti is constituted ?
Ans. Panchayat Samiti is constituted by a few gram Panchayats grouped together.
Question. How many countries have federal political system in the world ?
Question. What is called the head of municipal corporation ?
Question. What is decentralisation of power ?
Ans. To divide powers among different levels of Governments.
Question. Who is the political head of Zila Parishad ?
Ans. Zila Parishad Chairperson
Question. According to our constitution, who has the power to legislate on ‘residuary’ subjects ?
Ans. Union Government
Question. Give an example of a country which is an example of coming together federation ?
Question. Name the only state of India which has its own constitution ?
Ans. Jammu & Kashmir
Question. “‘Sharing of Power makes a country more powerful and united ?” Justify the statement ?
Ans. Sharing of power makes a country more powerful and united because of the following reasons :-
* Power sharing ensures that all people have stake in government.
* Power sharing ensures maximum participation. It upholds the concept of people’s rule.
* It ensures the political stability in democracy.
* Power sharing accommodates diverse groups.
Question. Describe any three demands of the Sri Lankan Tamils. How did they struggle for their demands ?
Ans. (i) The Sri Lankan Tamils demanded the recognition of Tamil as an official language.
(ii) They demanded regional autonomy and equality of opportunity in securing education and jobs.
(iii) Through the formation of several organisations they demanded an independent Tamil Eelam (State) in the northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka.
(iv) The Sri Lankan Tamils struggle for their demands by launching political organisation.
Question. Why is power sharing desirable ? Explain any three forms of power sharing in modern democracies with examples.
Ans. To reduce the possibility of conflicts between different social groups and ensure political stability power sharing is desirable.
Different forms of power sharing are as under.
* Horizontal distribution of power is shared among different organs of government such as Executive, Legislature and Judiciary.
* Vertical distribution of power. Power can be shared among governments at different levels such as central Govt; state Govt. and Local Govt.
* Power may also be shared among different social groups. Ex. Religious and linguistic groups, community government in Belgium etc.
* Power sharing arrangements can also be seen in the way political parties, pressure groups and movements control or influence those in power.
Question. What is the difference between a federal form of government and a unitary one ? Explain with examples ?
Ans. (i) In a federal system, power is divided at different levels. For example at the government level among the Executive, Legislature and Judiciary. At the government level among the central Government, state Government and Local Government. Each level of Government and its organs are free to work in their jurisdiction.
(ii) On the other hand in the unitary form of Government, all the powers are rested in the hands of national government. In this system either there is one level of government or the sub-units are subordinate of central government. The central government can pass on orders to the provincial or local government. For example, Sri Lanka, China etc.
Question. What is Gram Sabha ? Describe any four functions of a Gram Sabha.
Ans. Gram Sabha includes all the adult people of the village. Functions :-
(i) It elects the members of the gram panchayat.
(ii) It reviews the performance of gram panchayat.
(iii) It supervises the work of the gram panchayat.
Question. How have the centre-state relations been restructured to strengthen federalism ?
Ans. The centre state relations have been restructured to strengthen federalism in the following ways.
(i) Linguistic States : After independence, in 1950 the boundaries of several old states were changed in order to create new states. This was done to ensure that the people who spoke the same language, share the same culture, ethnicity could live in the same state.
(ii) Language Policy : Besides Hindi, 21 other languages were in the eighth schedule of the Indian constitution. Though Hindi was identified as the optional langiage but the central Government did not impose Hindi on states where people spoke a different language.
(iii) Centre – State Relations : It is the care of federalism and they are regulated by the provisions of the constitution. Indian constitution has demarcated the powers of the union and the state governments but still the Union Government can have influence over the state in many ways.
Question. Describe importance of local government in present day democracy ?
Ans. The importance of local government.
(i) Various problems are sorted out at local level.
(ii) It helps the people to directly participate in decision making.
(iii) It reduces the burden of central Government.
(iv) Local government is according to decentralisation of power.
Question. The creation of linguistic states was the first and the major test of democratic politics in our country. Justify the statement.
Ans. (i) After 1947, the boundaries of several old states of India were proposed to be changed to ensure that people who spoke the same language lived in the same state.
(ii) Some states like Nagaland were not created on the basis of language but because of their distinct culture, ethnicity and geography.
(iii) When the demand for the formation of linguistic states rose, some leaders feared that it would again lead to disintegration.
(iv) But when the actual creation of states was done on the basis of language, it so proved that the country was more united. This process did away with all fears and tension.
(v) Thus, the framing of the language policy was the test for Indian federation. It inspired the confidence in different language speaking people that no language will be imposed on them. In a way language policy has strengthened the unity and integrity of India.
Question. Highlight any three measures adopted by the Belgium government to accommodate regional and cultural diversities.
Ans. (i) The constitution prescribes that the number of Dutch and French speaking ministers shall be equal in central Government. Some special laws require the support of majority of numbers from each linguistic group. Thus, no single community can make decisions unilaterally.
(ii) Many powers of central Government have been given to the state governments of the two regions of the country.
(iii) The capital of Belgium, Brussels has a separate government in which both the communities have equal representation.
Question. What other factors besides politics keep the federations united ?
Ans. (i) Power sharing arrangement between the central and state government.
(ii) Independent role of judiciary.
(iii) Language ethnicity.
(iv) Response to conflicting claims.
(v) Active participates of the people.
Question. Why was the minority ‘French speaking community relatively rich and powerful ?
Ans. In Brussels, the capital of Belgium, the French speaking people are in majority . The power has been into the hands of French people for a longer period and benefitted them for economic development and education. The French speaking population was better read, more qualified and had access to more resources than the native Dutch Population . The French were part of an aristocracy of trades man and thus were financially strong.
Question. Compare the federations of coming together type and holding together type ?
Question. Write down the basic principles of power sharing ?
Ans. The basic principles of power sharing are :
(i) Government of different political parties i.e.a coalition Government.
(ii) Protection of minority rights.
(iii) Decentralisation of power.
(iv) To avoid conflicts
Question. Which five provisions of Indian constitution make India a full-fledged federation ?
Ans. A federation is a country in which the powers are divided between the union and its constituents.
(i) Two or more levels of government : Union Government, State Government and Local Government.
(ii) Three Lists : Union List, State List & Concurrent List.
(iii) Rigid Constituion
(iv) Bicameral Legislature.
Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha
(v) Financial Autonomy : The revenue sources of both the centre and states have been clearly defined. (vi) Independent Judiciary
Question. How majori tariarism resulted in social tension in Sri Lanka ?
Ans. The leader of the Sinhala community dominated the government and adopted a series of majoritarian measures which resulted social tension.
* Sri Lanka became independent in 1948.
* In 1956 an Act was passed to recognise Sirhala as the only official language, disregarding Tamil.
* Sinhala applicants were favoured for university and government jobs.
* The constitution gives special protection to Buddhism.
* The leaders were insensitive to the language and culture of Tamils.
* Government policies deprieved them of equal political rights.
Question. Explain five changes towards decentralisation brought in the constitution after the amendments made in 1992.
Ans. The following steps were taken towards decentralization after 1992.
(i) It was made constitutionally mandatory to hold regular elections to local government bodies.
(ii) Seats were reserved for scheduled castes (SCs) Scheduled Tribles (STs) and OBCs.
(iii) Women were given one-third representation.
(iv) An independent institution called state election commission, was created to conduct local body elections.
(v) State governments were required to share their power and revenue with local bodies.