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The Age of Industrialisation Notes for Class 10 Social Science

Following are The Age of Industrialisation Notes for Class 10 Social Science. These revision notes have been prepared by expert teachers of Class 10 Social Science as per the latest NCERT, CBSE, KVS books released for the current academic year. Students should go through Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation concepts and notes as these will help you to revise all important topics and help you to score more marks. We have provided Class 10 Social Science notes for all chapters in your book. You can access it all free and download Pdf.

Chapter 4 The Age of Industrialisation Notes Class 10 Social Science

The Age of Industrialisation Notes for Class 10 Social Science
The Age of Industrialisation Notes for Class 10 Social Science


  • An association of craftsmen or merchants following same craft to protect the members interest and supervise the standard of the work.
  • Tanning – Convert raw hide into leather by soaking in liquid containing tannic acid.
  • Food processing. Technique of chopping and mixing food for making jam, juices, etc.
  • Victorian Britain – Britain during the reign of Queen Victoria.
  • Brewery – A place where beer etc. is brewed commercially. Brewing is a process of infusion, boiling and fermentation.
  • Vagrant – A person without a settled home or regular work.
  • Bourgeois- The upper middle class.
  • Gomastha – An Indian word meaning an agent, a middle man between the merchant and weavers.
  • Stapler – A person who staples or sorts wool according to its fibre.


  • Production of goods with the help of machines in factories
  • The first industrialized Nation-Britain
  • Handmade goods to machine made goods in factories, cottage to factory, large scale production, started in
  • England in later parts of 18th Century. In course of time, it affected all systems of production.
  • Orient – Countries to the east of Mediterranean Sea usually referring to Asia.


  • Production in 17th century, artisans worked for merchants to produce goods, artisans took raw material from merchants for production. Their cottages functioned as factories.
  • Association of producers, trained craft people maintained control over production, restricted entry of new traders .Coming of factories ®


  • Early factories in England came up by the 1730s.
  • First symbol of new era-cotton mill
  • Many factories sprang up in England
  • A series of inventions in carding, twisting, spinning and rolling.


  • Cotton and iron and steel industries were the most dynamic industries.
  • New industries could not displace traditional ones
  • Technological changes occurred slowly
  • Steam engine invented by James Watt had no buyers for years.
  • New technologies were slow to be accepted.


  • In Victorian Britain there was no shortage of human labour.
  • In many industries the demand for labour was seasonal.
  • Range of products could be produced only with hand labour.
  • Demand for intricate design.
  • Upper classes preferred things produced by hand.


  • Abundance of labour affected the life of workers badly.
  • Labour was seasonal.
  • Fear of unemployment made workers hostile to new technology
  • Women labourers protested against the introduction of spinning jenny.
  • Introduction of railways opened greater opportunities.


  • Textile industry was the Centre of industrialization in India.


  • Finer varieties of cotton from India for export.
  • A vibrant sea trade operated through pre-colonial ports.


  • East India Company appointed llgomasthas -to collect supply from vveavers.
  • Weavers lost bargaining power and lost lands for settling loans.


  • By 1950s, India began to import Manchester cotton from Britain.
  • With Manchester import Indian export and local market declined.
  • Supply of raw cotton in India decreased.
  • Weavers were forced to buy cotton at high prices.


  • Industries were set up in different regions.
  • First cotton mill came in Bombay in 1854.
  • 1855 the first jute mill in Bengal.
  • 1830s – 1840s Dwarakanath Tagore setup six-point stock companies in Bengal.
  • Capital was accumulated through other trade network.
  • Till the First World War European managing agencies in fact controlled large sectors of Indian industries.


  • Most of the workers came from Indian villages


  • Early Indian cotton mills made coarse cotton yarn.
  • During the First World War Manchester imports to India declined.
  • Indian factories supplied goods for war needs.


  • Most of the Industries were located in Bengal and Bombay.
  • A small portion of total industrial labour worked in factories.
  • Use of fly shuttle increased handicraft.


  • Advertisements helps in creating new consumers.
  • Advertisements appear in :
    Street walls


  • Trade guilds were association of producers that trained craft people, maintained control over production, regulated competition and price.
  • A Stapler was a person who stapled or sorted wool according to its fibre.
  • Richard Arkwright set up the first cotton mill in England
  • Fear of unemployment made workers hostile to new technology.
  • Gomasthas were paid servants who would supervise weavers, collect supplies and examine the quality of cloth.
  • Fly shuttle was a mechanical device used for weaving.
  • A jobber was an old trusted worker employed by the industrialists to get new recruits.
  • The first cotton mill was set up in Bombay in 1854.
  • Proto Industrialization” meant large scale production of goods for international market, not based on the modern factory system.


Question. What were the problems of Indian weavers at the early 19th century?
Ans. The Indian weavers had to face many problems such as

  • Shortage of raw material- as raw cotton exports from India increased the price of raw cotton shot up. Weavers in India were starved of supplies and forced to buy raw cotton at higher prices. 
  • Clashes with Gomasthas – the Gomasthas acted arrogantly and punished weavers for delays in supply. So the weavers clashed with them.
  • System of Advances – the British started the system of advances to regularize the supply. The weavers eagerly took the advances in a hope to earn more but they failed to do so.
  • They even started losing small plots of land which they had earlier cultivated.

Question. Why did merchants turn to countryside, rather than setting up of business in towns?

  • Demand for goods have increased since the European powers had acquired colonies and sold their goods in their colonies.
  • But merchants could not expand production with in town because the urban crafts and trade guilds were very powerful.
  • Rulers granted different guilds the monopoly rights to produce and trade in specific products.

Question. What was the result of First World War on Indian industries?
Ans. First World War gave a great boost to the Indian Industries because of the following reasons –

  • The British mills became busy with the production of War materials so all its exports to India virtually stopped.
  • Suddenly Indian mills got clearance to produce different articles for the home market.
  • The Indian factories were called upon to supply various war related materials like­ Jute bags, clothes for uniforms, tents and leather boots for the forces and so on.

Question. What steps were taken by the East India Company to control the market of Cotton and silk goods?

  • Appointment of Gomasthas – Britishers appointed paid servants called the Gomasthas to supervise weavers, collect supplies and examine the quality of cloth.
  • Introducing advance or loan system.
  • British wanted to prevent wears from dealing with other buyers’.
  • Weavers were given loan to purchase raw materials for their production.
  • Those who took loan had to hand over the cloth only to gomasthas.

Question. Who was a jobber? Explain his functions.

  • Industrialists usually employed jobbers to get new recruits. Very often the Jobber was an old and trusted worker.
  • Industrialists got people from his village ensured them jobs, helped them to settle in the city and provided them money in time of crisis.
  • Jobbers became persons with authority and power. He began demanding money and gifts for the favour he did and started controlling the lives of workers.

Question. What does the cover picture indicate on the famous book “Dawn of the century,?

  • The music book published by E.T. Paul had a picture on the cover page announcing the Dawn of the Century
  • There is an angel of progress, bearing the flag of the new century and is announcing the Dawn of the Century Gently perched on a wheel with wings symbolizing time.
  • The fight is taking into the future.
  • Floating about behind her are the sign of progress – Railway, Camera, Machines, Printing press and factory.


Question. The Industrial Revolution was a mixed Blessing. Explain?
Ans. Blessing of the Industrial Revolution –

  • Production by machines helped to meet the increasing need of the growing population
  • Improved means of transport and communication made life easier
  • Machines relieved man of the drudgery.
  • Machines have brought more leisure.

Question. Explain the main features of Proto -Industrialization?
Ans. Main features of Proto Industrialization-

  • Production was not based on factories.
  • Large scale home based production for international market.
  • Merchants moved to country side and supplied money for artisans to produce for international market.
  • It provided alternative source of income.
  • Income from pro-industrial production supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation.
  • Helped in fuller use of their family labour resources.
  • Close relationship developed between the towns and country side.

Question. Explain the term “Age of Industries”

  • Inventions & developments which revolutionized the technique of production led to growth of new factory system.
  • New machines and steam power replaced human labour.
  • Led to the creation of new class – the capitalists and workers Migration of people from rural to urban areas.

Question. How did the British market expand their goods in India?

  • Advertisement of product- Advertisement makes products appear desirable and necessary. They try to shape the minds of people and create new needs.
  • During the industrial age, advertisements have played a major role in expanding the market for products.
  • Putting labels on the cloth bundles – The labels were needed to make the
  • Place of manufacture and the name of the company familiar to the buyer. When buyers saw ‘MADE IN MANCHESTER’ written in bold on a label they would feel confident about buyrng the clothes.
  • Images of Indian Gods gave approval to the goods being sold. Images of Krishna and Sarasvati were intended to make the manufacture from a foreign land appear somewhat familiar to the Indian People.
  • Printing Calendars to popularize their products: Unlike newspapers and magazines, calendars were used even by people who could not read. They were hung in the tea shops and in poor people’s homes, just as much as in offices and in middle class houses.

Harmful effects of Industrial Revolution –

  • The industrial Revolution shattered the rural life by turning the farmers into landless labourers.
  • Rural unemployment forced the unemployed farmers to migrate to cities in search of jobs The cities became overcrowded and many problems of insanitation and housing arose.
  • The industrial Revolution gave birth to imperialism.

Question. Why the system of advances proved harmful for the weavers?

  • No chance of bargaining – The weavers lost the chance of bargaining.
  • Leasing of land – most of the weavers had to lease out the land and devote all their time to weaving.
  • Dependency for food on others – most of the weavers after losing their land became dependent on other for the food supplies.
  • Clashes with Gomasthas – Gomasthas acted arrogantly, marched into villages with police and punished weavers for delay in supply.
  • No Profit – as the weavers had to sell their goods to the lenders.
The Age of Industrialisation Notes for Class 10 Social Science

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