The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Notes for Class 10 Social Science
Following are The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Notes for Class 10 Social Science. These revision notes have been prepared by expert teachers of Class 10 Social Science as per the latest NCERT, CBSE, KVS books released for the current academic year. Students should go through Chater 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe concepts and notes as these will help you to revise all important topics and help you to score more marks. We have provided Class 10 Social Science notes for all chapters in your book. You can access it all free and download Pdf.
Chapter 1 The Rise of Nationalism in Europe Notes Class 10 Social Science
Key Concepts –
In 1848, Frederic Sorrieu a French artist prepared a series of four prints visualizing his dream of a world made up of democratic and social Republic. The first print shows the people of Europe and America-men and women of all ages offering homage to Statue of Liberty.
The French Revolution and the idea of Nation-
- Growth of nationalism in France.
- Introduction of various measures and practices created sense of collective identity among the people of France
- Change of monarchy and establishment of republic, creation of new assembly.
- Rise ofNapoleon and his reforms. Revolutionaries help other people of Europe to become nation.
The making of Nationalism in Europe.
- Germany, Italy and Switzerland were divided into Kingdom, duchies and cantons these divisions were having their autonomous rulers.
- Uses of different languages. Rise of middle class.
- Industrialization in England, emergence of a working class and liberalism.
- New conservation after 1815 and preservation of traditional institution.
- After the defeat of Napoleon, the European government follows the spirit of conservatism. Conservative regimes were autocratic Revolutionaries at that time fought for liberty and freedom. E.g. Mazzini, s young Italy and Young Europe.
The age of Revolution (1830-48)
Liberalism and Nationalism. Greek war of independence against Ottoman Empire and treaty of Constantinople. Emphasis in vernacular. Hunger hardship and popular revolt. Demand for constitutionalism and national unification. Rights for women Results- Frankfurt Parliament (May 1848)
Unification of Germany and Italy.
Changing concept of Nationalism after 1848, emergence of new nation. Germany and role of Bismarck and his policy unification of Germany. Unification of Italy. Role of Mazzini Garibaldi and Victor Emanuel II Separate case and condition ofBritain-Glorious revolution of 1688, Act of union of 1707.
Visualizing the Nation-
Representing Nationalism and ideas through female allegory such a Marianne (France) and Germania (GermanNation).
Nationalism and Imperialism-
Last quarter of the 19th century nationalism became a narrow creed with limited ends, Intolerance Balkan became the sense of big power rivalry Nationalism, aligned with imperialism cause of World War I. Idea of a Nationalism was now same everywhere. But concept ofNational State was accepted universally.
AT A GLANCE
Conservatism is a political philosophy that stressed the importance of tradition, and professed gradual development to quick change.
Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary and member of Secret society? Carbonari and he subsequently founded two more underground societies young Italy and young Europe
Otto von Bismarck was the chief minister of Prussia and was the architect of the unification of Germany.
Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop particular form of nationalist sentiments.
Nation state is the one in which the majority of its citizens came to develop a sense of common identity and shared history or descent.
The Treaty of Vienna was hosted by the Austrian Chancellor Duke Mettemich in 1815.
Nationalist feelings were kept alive in Poland through music and language.
Kaiser Williaml was the emperor of united Germany
Liberalism stands for freedom of the individual and equality of all before law.
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Question. What were the measures taken by French revolutionaries to forge a sense of collective identity?
- Through the ideas of -la patrie and le citoyen
- New tricolor flag
- Composition of new system of hymns and commemoration of martyrs
- Formulating uniform laws for all citizens.
Question. Explain the consequences of the Vienna congress
- The Bourbon dynasty was restored in France,
- A number of states were set up on the boundaries of France.
- Prussia was given important new territories,
- Austria got control of northern Italy,
- Russia was given part of Poland.
Question. Why the 1830s were the years of great economic hardship in Europe.
- Increase in population,
- Unemployment, migration, price rise,
- stiff competition in the market,
- Bad condition of peasants.
Question. How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
- In Britain, the ethnic groups consisting of the English, Welsh, Scot and Irish had their own culture and political tradition.
- The English parliament had seized power from the monarchy in 1688. The act of union made Scotland to come under England. Ireland was forcibly incorporated into the United Kingdom in 1801.
- The symbols of New Britain, the British flag, the national anthem the English language were actively promoted.
LONG ANSWER QUESTION
Question. What is the other name for Napoleonic code? Write any four changes brought by this.
Ans. The Napoleonic code also known as civil codes of 1804.
- Did away privileges based on birth
- Established equality.
- Secured right to property.
- Simplified administrative division and abolished feudal system.
Question. What were the ideals of liberal Nationalism?
- Freedom for individual
- Equality of all before law
- Concept of Govt. by consent.
- End of autocracy
- Freedom of market
Question. Explain the different stages of unification of Germany.
- Germany was group of small states before its unification.
- The liberal initiative to Nation building failed and was taken over by Prussian empire. Otto von Bismarck was the chief architect in German Unification.
- He led three wars against Austria, Denmark and France which ended in Prussian victory. In 1871 Prussian King William I, was declared German Emperor.
Question. Briefly explain the unification ofltaly, highlight the value you learn from this.
- During the middle of 18th century, Italy was divided into seven states of which Sardinia and Piedmont were under princely states.
- North, under Austria, Centre ruled by Pope and South ruled by Spain.
- The main leaders were Victor Immanuel II of Sardinia, Chief Minister Count Cavour Mazzini and Garibaldi. With their initiative in 1861 Victor Emmanuel was declared king of united Italy.
- Value highlighted in this is love, unity, National
Question. Briefly explain Balkan Issue.
- Balkan was region of Geographical and ethnic variation comprising of Romania Bulgaria, Albania Greece, and Macedonia, Croatia _Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro who were all together called slaves.
- Till the last part of 19th century, this was under Ottoman Empire. The disintegration of the Ottoman Empire and emergence of Romantic Nationalism made this region a land of conflict.
- Balkan nations tried to capture more territories from neighbouring places. It also became a scene of big power rivalry like Russia, Germany, England and Austria, Hungary. Ultimately it led to open wars and finally led it to the First World War.
Question. Why was Frankfurt National assembly convened? Why did it fail?
- It was convened in 1848 to vote for an all-German National Assembly.
- It drafted a new constitution for a German Nation headed by monarchy. It failed because King of Prussia joined other monarchs who were against parliament.
- The parliament was dominated by middle classes who resisted the demands of workers and artisans. At the End troops were called to disband the assembly.